Dissertation – Bibliography

.Nxt. “WCIT Lowdown: It’s All About Africa and Committee 5.” .Nxt | Internet Policy and Governance Dissected, December 3, 2012. http://news.dot-nxt.com/2012/12/06/wcit-lowdown-its-all-about-afr.

Abban, Rita, Onno Omta, John B. K. Aheto, and Victor Scholten. “Connecting the Dots: A Multiple Case Study of the Network Relationships of SMEs in the NTAE Sector of Ghana.” African Journal of Economic and Management Studies 4, no. 1 (April 5, 2013): 4–4.

Abi-Habib, Maria, and Habib Khan Totakhil. “World News: Taliban Jailbreak Rattles Afghan South — Escape of Hundreds via Prison Tunnel Refills Ranks of Kandahar Insurgents.”.” Wall Street Journal A (26): 7.

Abiodun, Rowland. “African Aesthetics.” Journal of Aesthetic Education 35, no. 4 (Winter 2001): 15.

Abu-Jamal, Mumia. All Things Censored. New York: Seven Stories, 2001.

———. Death Blossoms: Reflections from a Prisoner of Conscience. Cambridge, MA: South End, 2003.

———. Faith of Our Fathers. New York: Africa World Press, 2003.

———. “Imprisoned Intellectuals.” In Intellectuals and the Gallows. Vol. Imprisoned Intellectuals New York. Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

———. Jailhouse Lawyers: Prisoners Defending Prisoners. San Francisco: City Lights, 2009.

———. Live From Death Row. New York: Harper Perennial, 1996.

———. “Revolutionary Literature = Contraband.” Journal of Prisoners on Prisons 2, no. 1 (Fall 1989).

———. We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party. Cambridge, MA: South End, 2004.

Abu-Jamal, Mumia, Dhoruba Bin-Wahad, and Assata Shakur. “Still Black, Still Strong: Survivors of the War Against Black Revolutionaries” (1993).

Abu-Jamal, Mumia, and Heike Kleffner. “The Black Panthers: Interviews with Geronimo Ji-Jaga Pratt and Mumia Abu-Jamal.” Race and Class 35 (1993).

Abutu, Lawrence Okolo. The Contemporary West African Economic Development and Its Relations with China. GRIN Verlag, 2013.

Adiel A. Akplogan. “Spearheading Internet Technology and Policy Development in the African Region.” presented at the APNIC-29, Beijing, August 26, 2009. https://www.google.com/url?q=http://meetings.apnic.net/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/13986/IGF-and-Africa.pdf.

Adorno, Theodor. Minima Moralia: Reflections from Damaged Life. London: Verso, 1978.

Adorno, Theodor, and Max Horkheimer. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002.

Afonso, Carlos. “Scenario for a New Internet Governance, Version 6.” In Proposals Repository of Internet Governance Project. WGIG, 2005.

Agamben, Giorgio. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford: Stanford University, 1998.

———. State of Exception. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2005.

———. The Open: Man and Animal. Translated by Kevin Attell. 1st ed. Stanford University Press, 2003.

———. The Signature of All Things: On Method. New York: Zone Books, 2009.

———. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Translated by Heller-Roazen, Daniel. Stanford: Stanford University, 1998.

———. State of Exception. Translated by Attell, Kevin. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2005.

———. The Signature of All Things. New York: Zone Books, 2009.

Agba, George. “Nigeria: Transparency Inernational 2012 Report – Togo, Niger, Mali Less Corrupt Than Nigeria.” Leadership, December 6, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201212060280.html.

Agnew, Vanessa. “History’s Affective Turn: Historical Reenactment and Its Work in the Present.” Rethinking History 11, no. 3 (2007): 299–312.

Akoh, Ben, Egede-Nissen, Bjørnar, MacLean, Don, and Creech, Heather. Preparing the Ground for the West Africa Internet Governance Forum: A Review of Internet Public Policy Interests and Processes in Selected Countries in the Region. International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2011.

Aladeniyi, Fasa Rachael, and Joseph Kehinde Fasae. “Use of Cybercafé for Internet Access by the Students of Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria.” Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems 47, no. 1 (February 8, 2013): 4–14. doi:10.1108/00330331211296286.

Alavi, Nasrin. We Are Iran: The Persian Blogs. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, 2005.

Albery, B. “What Level of Dialtone Penetration Constitutes ’universal Service’?” Telecommunications Policy 19, no. 5 (1995): 365–380.

Alcott, Iii D. William, and Jr Findley C. Doyle. “Real Time Insurance Administration and Medical Information Utility,” October 10, 1991.

Alhassan, Amin. “Telecom Regulation, the Postcolonial State, and Big Business: The Ghanaian Experience.” West Africa Review 4, no. 1 (2003).

Alinejad, Donya. “Locating Home in a ‘Digital Age’: An Ethnographic Case Study of Second-Generation Iranian Americans in LA and Their Use of Internet Media.” Iranian Studies 46, no. 1 (2013): 95–113. doi:10.1080/00210862.2012.743309.

Allen, Keith, and Kate Burridge. Forbidden Words: Taboo and the Censoring of Language. New York: Cambridge University, 2006.

Allen, Barry. “Government in Foucault.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy no. 21 (December 1991): 321–440.

Allen, Robert van Roden. “Discourse and Sexuality: Toward the Texture of Eros.” Semiotext(e) 4, no. 1 (1981): 249–258.

Altman, Dennis. Global Sex. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2001.

———. “Sexuality and Globalization.” Sexuality Research and Social Policy 1, no. 1 (2004): 63–67.

Amariglio, Jack L. “The Body, Economic Discourse, and Power: An Economist’s Introduction to Foucault.” History of Political Economy 20, no. 4 (Winter 1988): 583–613.

Amichai-Hamburger, Yair. The Social Net: Understanding Our Online Behavior. Oxford University Press, 2013.

Amico, Robert, d’. “Desire and the Commodity Form.” Telos no. 35 (1978): 88–122.

Amuah, K. Michel Bowman. “A System, Method and Article of Manufacture for Remote Demonstration of Business Capabilities in an E-commerce Environment,” August 21, 2002.

Amulree, Lord. “Evolution of the Clinic.” Books and Bookman 19, no. 4 (1974): 53.

Anatsui, El. Gawu. London: Oriel Mostyn Gallery, 2003.

———. Old and New. London: October Gallery, 1991.

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991.

Anderson, B. “The Social Impact Of Broadband Household Internet Access.” Information, Communication & Society 11, no. 1 (2008): 5–24.

Anderson, Kevin. Marx at the Margins. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2010.

Andrade, Susan. “Gender and ‘the Public Sphere’ in Africa: Writing Women and Rioting Women.” Agenda no. 54 (January 1, 2002): 45–59. doi:10.2307/4548072.

Andrejevic, Mark. “Interactive (in)security.” Cultural Studies 20, no. 4 (2006): 441–458.

Andrews, Beverly. “Sculpture Ancestral Voices.” New African no. 414 (January 2003): 60.

Appadurai, Arjun. “Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination.” Public Culture 12, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 1–19.

Appiah, Kwame Anthony. In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture. Oxford University Press, USA, 1993.

Arac, Jonathan. “Foucault and Central Europe: A Polemical Speculation.” Boundary 2, no. 21 (Fall 1994): 197–210.

Arato, Andrew, and Eike Gebhardt, eds. The Essential Frankfurt School Reader. New York: Continuum, 1982.

Arditi, Jorge. “The Feminization of Etiquette Literature: Foucault, Mechanisms of Social Change, and the Paradoxes of Empowerment.” Sociological Perspectives no. 39 (Fall 1996): 417–434.

Aristotle. Physics. Vol. II, 350AD.

Armstrong, Timothy J., ed. Michel Foucault, Philosopher. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Arnold, J. Goldberg Renee, Harry Harjono, Krista Pettit, and Yonglong Zhou. “Data Processing System for Patient Outcome and Risk Benchmarking and Healthcare Data Base Management,” November 23, 2000.

Aronowitz, Stanley. “History as Disruption: On Benjamin and Foucault.” Humanities in Society 2 (Spring 1979): 125–147.

Artexaga, B. “Maddening States.” Annual Review of Anthropology 32 (2003): 393–410.

Asante, M. “Implementation of Internet Protocol Network Architecture for Effective Bandwidth Allocation in a Multiparty, Multimedia Conferencing.” Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) 32, no. 2 (2012): 94–103. doi:10.4314/just.v32i2.11.

Ashenden, Samantha, and David Owen. Foucault Contra Habermas: Recasting the Dialogue Between Genealogy and Critical Theory. Sage Publications, 1999.

Atkinson, R. D., Correa, D. K., and Naklada, S. Explaining International Broadband Leadership. Washington, DC: The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, 2008. http://www.itif.org/files/ExplainingBBLeadership.pdf.

Attewell, P., and Ahituv, N. “Home Computers and School Performance.” The Information Society 15, no. 1 (1999): 1–10.

Attia, Ashraf M., Nergis Aziz, Barry Friedman, and Mahdy F. Elhusseiny. “Commentary: The Impact of Social Networking Tools on Political Change in Egypt’s ‘Revolution 2.0’.” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 10, no. 4 (July 2011): 369–374. doi:10.1016/j.elerap.2011.05.003.

Aurigi, A. “New Technologies, Same Dilemmas: Policy and Design Issues for the Augmented City.” Journal of Urban Technology 13, no. 3 (2006): 5–28.

Avgerou, C. “Discourse on Innovation and Development in Information Systems in Developing Countries Research.” In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries. Dubai: Dubai School of Government, 2009. http://www.ifip.dsg.ae/Docs/FinalPDF/Full Papers/Avgerou_Discourses on Innovation and Development.pdf.

———. “Inforirmation Systems in Developing Countries: A Critical Research Review.” Journal of Information Technology 23, no. 3 (n.d.): 133–146. Accessed March 1, 2010.

———. “Information Systems in Developing Countries: a Critical Research Review.” Journal of Information Technology 23, no. 3 (2007): 133–146.

Avgerou, C. “Information Systems in Developing Countries: a Critical Research Review.” Journal of Information Technology 23, no. 3. Working Paper Series #165 (2007): 133–146.

Ayers, Phoebe, Charles Matthews, and Ben Yates. How Wikipedia Works – And How You Can Be a Part of It. Online: No Starch Press, 2008.

Bacevich, Andrew. Washington Rules: America’s Path to Permanent War. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2010.

Bacon, Francis. The New Organon, 1620.

Badran, M.F. “Is ICT Empowering Women in Egypt? An Empirical Study.” Kampala: Makerere University, 2010. http://mak.ac.ug/documents/IFIP/EMPOWERINGWOMENINEGYPT.pdf.

Bailey, Arlene, and Ojelanki Ngwenyama. “Toward Entrepreneurial Behavior in Underserved Communities: An Ethnographic Decision Tree Model of Telecenter Usage.” Information Technology for Development (n.d.): 1–19. Accessed January 10, 2013. doi:10.1080/02681102.2012.751571.

Bair, Tom, Dana Haitkin, Dana Jaye Cadman, and lewis levenberg, eds. Second Propaganda. 1st ed. The Circus Book, 2012.

Balakrishnan, Gopal. “New Left Review – Gopal Balakrishnan: Hardt and Negri’s Empire.” Accessed December 9, 2012. http://newleftreview.org/II/5/gopal-balakrishnan-hardt-and-negri-s-empire.

Balkin, J. M. “Information Power: The Information Society from an Antihumanist Perspective.” edited by Katz, J. E. and Subramanian, R. New York: NYU Press, forthcoming. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm? abstract_id=1648624.

Ball, Stephen, ed. Foucault and Education: Disciplines and Knowledge. London and New York: Routledge, 1991.

Ball-Rokeach, S.J., and M.L. DeFleur. “A Dependency Model of Mass-media Effects.” Communication Research 3, no. 3 (1976).

Ball-Rokeach, S.J., Y.C. Kim, and S. Matei. “Storytelling Neighborhood: Paths to Belonging in Diverse Urban Environments.” Communication Research 28 (2001): 392–428.

Bankole, Olubanke M. “The Use of Internet Services and Resources by Scientists at Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Nigeria.” Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems 47, no. 1 (February 8, 2013): 15–33. doi:10.1108/00330331211296295.

Banks, K., and Burge, R. Mobile Phones: An Appropriate Tool For Conservation And Development? Cambridge: Fauna & Flora International, 2004.

Barker, Cyril Josh. “Mumia Supporters Challenge NBC.” New York Amsterdam News (20): 6, 31.

Barry, Andrew, Thomas Osborne, and Nikolas Rose, eds. Foucault and Political Reason: Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism, and Rationalities of Government. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Barthes, Roland. Image, Music, Text. New York: Hill and Wang, 1978.

Bastian, M. “Nationalism in a Virtual Space: Immigrant Nigerians on the Internet.” West Africa Review no. 1 (May 2009). http://www.africaknowledgeproject.org/index.php/war/article/view/400.

Batchelor, S.J., P. Norrish, N. Scott, and M. Webb. Sustainable ICT Case Histories. Reading: Gamos Ltd., 2003. http://www.sustainableicts.org/Final Tech report for Sus ICT 31012003.pdf.

Bate, David. Photography: The Key Concepts. New York: Berg, 2009.

Baudrillard, Jean. “Forgetting Foucault.” Translated by Nicole Dufresne. Humanities in Society 3 (Winter 1980): 87–111.

Beard, T. R., Ford, G. S., and Spiwak, L. J. “The Broadband Adoption Index: Improving Measurements and Comparisons of Broadband Deployment and Adoption. Policy Paper Number 36.” Washington, D.C.: Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies, 2009. http://www.phoenix-center.org/pcpp/PCPP36Final.pdf.

Beck, Ulrich. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, 1992.

Becker, S, Crandall, M. D., Fisher, K. E., Blakewood, R., Kinney, B., and Russell-Sauvé, C. “Opportunity for All: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access.” Washington, D.C.: Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2011. http://www.imls.gov/pdf/OppForAll2.pdf.

Becker, S., Crandall, M. D., Fisher, K. E., Kinney, B., Landry, C., and Rocha, A. “Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries.” . Retrieved March 25, 2010 from http://impact.ischool.wa, 2010. http://impact.ischool.washington.edu/documents/OPP4ALL_FinalReport.pdf.

Bell, David. Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities. London: Routledge, 1995.

Bellin, E. “The Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Exceptionalism in Comparative Perspective.” Comparative Politics 36 (2004): 139–157.

Benjamin, Walter. Iluminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.

Benkler, Y., Faris, R., Gasser, U., Miyakawa, L., and Schultze, S. “Next Generation Connectivity. A Review of Broadband Internet Transitions and Policy from Around the World.” Cambridge: Berkman Center for Internet & Society, 2010. http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/pubrelease/broadband/.

Bennett, Tony. Culture: A Reformer’s Science. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin, 1998.

Benton, Thomas H. “Graduate School in the Humanities: Just Don’t Go.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 30, 2009, sec. Advice. http://chronicle.com/article/Graduate-School-in-the/44846/.

Benveniste, Emile. Problems in General Linguistics. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami, 1966.

Bernauer, James. “The Prisons of Man: An Introduction to Foucault’s Negative Theology.” International Philosophical Quarterly no. 27 (December 1987): 365–380.

Bernauer, James, and Rasmussen, David, eds. The Final Foucault. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1988.

Bernauer, James W. “Beyond Life and Death: On Foucault’s Post-Auschwitz Ethic.” Philosophy Today no. 32 (Summer 1988): 128–142.

———. Michel Foucault’s Force of Flight: Towards an Ethics for Thought. Contemporary Studies in Philosophy and Human Studies. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1990.

Berners-Lee, T. Weaving the Web. New York: HarperCollins, 2000.

Bertola, Vittorio. “Internet Steering-Coordination Group.” In Proposals Repository of Internet Governance Project. WGIG, 2005.

Bertot, J. C., Jaeger, P. T., Langa, L. A., and McClure, C. R. ““Public Access Computing and Internet Access in Public Libraries: The Role of Public Libraries in E–government and Emergency Situations.” First Monday 11, no. 9 (September 2006). http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1392/1310.

Bertot, J. C., Jaeger, P. T., McClure, C. R., Wright, C. B., and Jensen, E. “Public Libraries and the Internet 2008-2009: Issues, Implications, and Challenges.” First Monday 14, no. 11 (November 2, 2009). http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/2700/2351.

Bérubé, Michael. “The Humanities, Unraveled.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 18, 2013, sec. The Chronicle Review. https://chronicle.com/article/Humanities-Unraveled/137291/.

Best, M.L. Understanding Our Knowledge Gaps: Or, Do We Have an ICT4D Field? And Do We Want One? Cambridge: Publius Project, 2010. http://publius.cc/understanding_our_knowledge_gaps_or_do_we_have_ict4d_field_and_do_we_want_o.

Best, M. L. “Connecting In Real Space: How People Share Knowledge and Technologies in Cybercafés.” Singapore: AMIC, 2010. http://www.globalimpactstudy.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/amic.final_.1.1.pdf.

Best, M. L., and Kumar, R. “Sustainability Failures of Rural Telecenters: Challenges from the Sustainable Access in Rural India (SARI) Project.” Information Technologies and International Development 4, no. 4 (2009): 31–45.

Best, Steven. The Politics of Historical Vision: Marx, Foucault, Habermas. Critical Perspectives. New York: Guilford Press, 1995.

Binnie, Jon. The Globalization of Sexuality. London: Sage, 2004.

Binnie, Jon, and David Bell. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000.

Bisson, Terry. On A Move: The Story of Mumia Abu-Jamal. Sussex, UK: Plough Publishing House, 2000.

Blackman, C., and Srivastava, L., eds. Telecommunications Regulation Handbook. 10th anniversary edition. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2011. http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.1057.pdf.

Boellstorff, Tom. “Queer Studies in the House of Anthropology.” Annual Review of Anthropology 36 (2007): 17–35.

———. “The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader.” In Dubbing Culture: Indonesian Gay and Lesbi Subjectivities and Ethnography in an Already Globalized World. Vol. The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader New York. Blackwell, 2008.

———. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia. 2005: Princeton University Press, 2005.

De Boever, Arne. “The Allegory of the Cage: Foucault, Agamben, and the Enlightenment.” Foucault Studies 10 (2010): 7–22.

Bohman, James. “Critical Theory.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. Spring 2012, 2012. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/critical-theory/.

Bollier, David. Silent Theft: The Private Plunder of Our Common Wealth. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Bollou, Felix, and Ojelanki Ngwenyama. “Are ICT Investments Paying Off in Africa? An Analysis of Total Factor Productivity in Six West African Countries from 1995 to 2002.” Information Technology for Development 14, no. 4 (2008): 294–307. doi:10.1002/itdj.20089.

Bonikowski, Bart. “Digitally Enabled Social Change: Activism in the Internet Age By Jennifer Earl and Katrina Kimport The MIT Press. 2011. 272 Pages. $32.77 Cloth.” Social Forces (January 8, 2013). doi:10.1093/sf/sos160.

Bordo, Susan. “The Body and the Reproduction of Femininity: A Feminist Appropriation of Foucault.” In Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing, edited by Alison M. Jaggar and Susan R. Bordo, 13–33. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1989.

Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Translated by Richard Nice. Harvard University Press, 1984.

———. Distinction: The Social Critique of Taste. London: Routledge, 1984.

———. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge University Press, 1977.

———. The Field of Cultural Production. New York: Columbia University, 1993.

———. “The Specificity of the Scientific Field and the Social Conditions of the Progress of Reason.” Social Science Information 14, no. 19 (1975): 35–50.

Bowers, C.A. Let Them Eat Data: How Computers Affect Education, Cultural Diversity, and the Prospects of Ecological Sustainability. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia, 2000.

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 2002.

Bratich, Jack. “Public Secrecy and Immanent Security.” Cultural Studies 20, no. 4 (2006): 493–511.

Bratich, Jack, Packer, Jeremy, and McCarthy, Cameron, eds. Foucault, Cultural Studies, and Governmentality. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2003.

Bratton, Michael. “Citizens and Cell Phones in Africa.” African Affairs (February 7, 2013). doi:10.1093/afraf/adt004.

Braudy, Leo, and Marshall Cohen, eds. Film Theory and Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Brea, Jennifer. “Africabeat,” n.d. africabeatblog.com.

Brekhus, Wayne. Peacocks, Chameleons, Centaurs: Gay Suburbia and the Grammar of Social Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Brennan, Denise. What’s Love Got to Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004.

Brent, Alan Colin. “TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS IN THE AFRICAN CONTEXT.” International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management 09, no. 05 (October 2012): 1250035. doi:10.1142/S0219877012500356.

Breslow, Michael, and D. M. A. Brian Rosenfeld. “Telemedical Expert Service Provision for Intensive Care Units,” May 2, 2002.

Brich, Cécile. “Foucault, Criminal Subjectivity, and the Groupe D’information Sur Les Prisons,” 2006.

Bronner, Stephen Eric, and Douglas MacKay Kellner, eds. Critical Theory and Society: A Reader. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Brown, A. E. L. Intellectual Property, Human Rights and Competition: Access to Essential Innovation and Technology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013.

Brown, Danice L., Rhonda L. White-Johnson, and Felicia D. Griffin-Fennell. “Breaking the Chains: Examining the Endorsement of Modern Jezebel Images and Racial-ethnic Esteem Among African American Women.” Culture, Health & Sexuality 0, no. 0 (n.d.): 1–15. Accessed March 19, 2013. doi:10.1080/13691058.2013.772240.

Brown, Ian, and Christopher T. Marsden. Regulating Code: Good Governance and Better Regulation in the Information Age. MIT Press, 2013.

Browne, Kath, Jason Lim, and Gavin Brown. Geographies of Sexualities: Theory, Practices, and Politics. London: Ashgate, 2007.

Brügger, Niels. “When the Present Web Is Later the Past: Web Historiography, Digital History, and Internet Studies.” Historical Social Research 37, no. 4 (2012): 102–117.

Bryson, Douglas, and Glyn Atwal. “Antecedents of Attitude Towards the Adoption of Internet Banking in Senegal.” Journal of Innovation Economics n°11, no. 1 (March 1, 2013): 33–54.

Bucy, E.P. “Interactivity in Society: Locating an Elusive Concept.” The Information Society 20 (2004): 373–383.

Bucy, E.P., and C.C. Tao. “The Mediated Moderation Model of Interactivity.” Media Psychology 9 (2007): 647–672.

Burchell, Graham. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, with Two Lectures by and an Interview with Michel Foucault. Chicago: niversity of Chicago Press, 1991.

Burke, Peter. “Performing History: The Importance of Occasions.” Rethinking History 9, no. 1 (2005): 35–52.

Burke, Peter, ed. Critical Essays on Michel Foucault. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Pub., 1992.

Burnheim, Sally, and Article 19 (Organization). The Right to Communicate: The Internet in Africa. Article 19, 1999.

Burrell, J., and Toyama. “What Constitutes Good ICTD Research?” Information Technologies and International Development 5, no. 3 (n.d.): 82–94.

Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter. New York: Routledge, 1993.

———. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. New York: Routledge, 1993.

———. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge, 1990.

C.s.h.n, Murthy. “Book Review: Christian Fuchs, Foundations of Critical Media and Information Studies.” Media, Culture & Society 35, no. 2 (March 1, 2013): 271–273. doi:10.1177/0163443712472132.

Caldas, A., David, P. A., and Ormanidhi, O. Digital Information Network Technologies, Organisational Performance and Productivity. Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute, 2005. http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/resources/publications/OIIRP1_200512_Report.pdf.

Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs. “The Rhetoric of Radical Black Nationalism: A Study In Self-Conscious Criticism.” Central States Speech Journal 22 (1971): 151–160.

Canguilheim, Georges. “Ideology and Rationality in the Life Sciences.” In The Question of Normality in the History of Biological Thought, Ideology and Rationality in the Life Sciences:125–145, 1988.

Caputo, John D., and Mark Yount. Foucault and the Critique of Institutions. State College, PA: Penn State University, 1993.

Caputo, John D, and Mark Yount. Foucault and the Critique of Institutions. Edited by John D. Caputo and Mark Yount. State College, PA: Penn State University, 1993.

Card, Orson Scott. Ender’s Game. New York: Tor, 1994.

Carmichael, Stokely (Kwame Ture), and Charles V. Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

Carriger, Michelle Liu. “Historionics: Neither Here Nor There with Historical Reality TV.” JDTC (Spring 2010).

Carroll, David. Paraesthetics: Foucault, Lyotard, Derrida. New York: Routledge, 1987.

———. “The Subject of Archaeology or the Sovereignty of the Episteme.” Modern Language Notes no. 93 (1978): 695–722.

Castells, Manuel. The End of the Millennium. Vol. III. The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture. Cambridge, MA: Oxford University Press, 1997.

———. The Power of Identity. Vol. I. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Cambridge, MA: Oxford University Press, 1997.

———. The Rise of the Network Society. Vol. I. The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture. Cambridge, MA: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Castells, M. Internet, Libertad y Sociedad: Una Perspectiva Analítica. Lección Inaugural Del Curso Académico 2001-2002 De La UOC. Barcelona: UOC, 2001. http://www.uoc.edu/web/esp/launiversidad/inaugural01/intro_conc.html.

Castells, M., Fernández-Ardèvol, M., Linchuan Qiu, J., and Sey, A. Mobile Communication and Society. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.

Catteddu, D., and Hogben, G. Cloud Computing. Benefits, Risks and Recommendations for Information Security. Heraklion: ENISA, 2009. http://www.enisa.europa.eu/act/rm/files/deliverables/cloud-computing-risk-assessment/at_download/fullReport.

Celedón, A., Pequeño, A., Garrido, M., and Patin, B. “El Rol De Los Telecentros y Las Bibliotecas En Situación De Catástrofe: El Caso Chileno.” Seattle: Technology & Social Change Group, University of Washington Information School, 2012. https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/bitstream/handle/1773/19637/TASCHA_Rol-Bibliotecas-Telecentros-Chile_20120224.pdf?sequence=1.

Cenk, Ozbay. “Nocturnal Queers: Rent Boys’ Masculinity in Istanbul.” Sexualities 13, no. 5 (2010): 645–663.

Center for History and New Media. “Zotero Quick Start Guide,” n.d. http://zotero.org/support/quick_start_guide.

Center, Pew Research. “Database Pew Global Attitudes Project” (2011). http://www.pewglobal.org/database/.

———. Future of The Global Muslim Population, n.d.

———. “The Future of the Global Muslim Population” (2011). pewforum.org.

Cerrillo i Martínez, Agustí, Miquel Peguera Poch, Ismael Peña-López, and Mònica Vilasau Solana. “Net Neutrality and other challenges for the future of the Internet. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Internet, Law & Politics. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, 11-12 July, 2011” Conference lecture, July 11, 2011. http://openaccess.uoc.edu/webapps/o2/handle/10609/8341.

De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Cesaire, Aime. Discourse on Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000.

Chaffai, Lamia. “Tunisia and the State of the Internet” (2002). http://nsrc.org/db/lookup/report.php?id=1037285984211:488846420&fromISO=TN.

Chalmers, B. “Sexuality and Globalization.” Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 23, no. 4 (2002): 263–266.

Chandrasekhar, C. “IT Services as a Locomotive for Development?” Frontline Magazine, July 1, 2005. http://www.twnside.org.sg/title2/resurgence/184/cover7.doc.

Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Delhi: Oxford University Press India, 1995.

Chia, Stella C., Kerr-Hsin Lu, and Douglas McLeod. “Sex, Lies, and Compact Disc: A Case Study on Third-Person Perception and Motivations for Media Censorship.” Communication Research 31 (2004): 109–130.

Ching, Carrie. “Mumia: King of Raptivism” (26). http://www.alternet.org/.

Choi, Hwanho, and Bernard Burnes. “The Internet and Value Co-creation: The Case of the Popular Music Industry.” Prometheus 0, no. 0 (n.d.): 1–19. Accessed March 19, 2013. doi:10.1080/08109028.2013.774595.

Chomsky, Noam, and Edward Herman. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, n.d.

Christodoulides, George, Nina Michaelidou, and Nikoletta Theofania Siamagka. “A Typology of Internet Users Based on Comparative Affective States: Evidence from Eight Countries.” European Journal of Marketing 47, no. 1/2 (February 8, 2013): 153–173. doi:10.1108/03090561311285493.

Chun, Wendy. Control and Freedom: Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

———. “On Software, or the Persistence of Visual Knowledge.” Grey Room 18 (Winter 1995): 26–41.

Chung, Chung Joo, George A. Barnett, and Han Woo Park. “Inferring International Dotcom Web Communities by Link and Content Analysis.” Quality & Quantity (n.d.): 1–17. Accessed April 9, 2013. doi:10.1007/s11135-013-9847-z.

Churchill, Ward. “A Not So Friendly Fascism? Political Prisons and Prisoners in the United States.” CR: The New Centennial Review 6 (Spring 2006): 1–54.

Clark, Michael. Michel Foucault: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Bibliographies of Modern Critics and Critical Schools Series. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1983.

Classen, Christoph. “Balanced Truth: Steven Spielberg’s Schindler’s List Among History, Memory, and Popular Culture.” History and Theory 47 (2009): 77–102.

Cleaver, Eldridge. Soul on Ice. New York: Delta, 1968.

Cohen, Daniel Jared, and Roy Rosenzweig. Digital History, 2006.

Cohen, Noam. “A History Department Bans Citing Wikipedia as a Research Source.” New York Times (21). http://www.nytimes.com/.

Colle, R.D. “Building ICT4D Capacity in and by African Universities.” International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication TEchn Ology 1, no. 1 (2005): 101–107.

Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge, 2000.

———. “From Black Power to Hip Hop” (2006).

Comisión de Regulación de Comunicaciones. “Revisión De La Definición De Banda Ancha Para Colombia.” Bogotá: Comisión de Regulación de Comunicaciones, 2009. http://www.crcom.gov.co/images/stories/crt-documents/PaginaPrincipal/Documento_de_Analisis_BA.PDF.

Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe. “Banda Ancha Para El Desarrollo y La Inclusión. Documento Para La Sexta Cumbre De Las Américas, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia, 14 y 15 De Abril De 2012.” Santiago de Chile: CEPAL, 2011. http://svc.summit-americas.org/sites/default/files/CEPAL Banda ancha para el desarrollo y la inclusion.pdf.

Compaine, B. M. “Information Gaps: Myth or Reality?” Telecommunications Policy 10, no. 1 (1986): 5–12.

Compaine, B. M., and Weinraub, M. J. “Universal Access to Online Services: An Examination of the Issue.” Telecommunications Policy 21, no. 1 (1997): 15–33.

contributors, Wikipedia. Wikipedia:Statistics. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 7.

Cook, Alexander. “The Use and Abuse of Historical Reenactment: Thoughts on Recent Trends in Public History.” Criticism 46, no. 3 (2004): 487–496.

Coombs, W. Timothy, and Sherry J. Holladay. “The Pseudo-panopticon: The Illusion Created by CSR-related Transparency and the Internet.” Corporate Communications: An International Journal 18, no. 2 (April 24, 2013): 212–227. doi:10.1108/13563281311319490.

Copeland, B. J. “The Modern History of Computing.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed July 10, 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2006/entries/computing-history.

Copeland, B. J. “The Modern History of Computing (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Summer 2006 Edition).” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2006/entries/computing-history/.

Córcoles Briongos, C. Web 2.0. La Web Como Plataforma. Barcelona: UOC, 2008.

Cordesman, Anthony H. “Iraq’s Sunni Insurgents: Looking Beyond Al Qa’ida.” Center for Strategic and International Studies (2007). http://www.comw.org/warreport/fulltext/070716cordesman.pdf.

Corkin, Lucy. Uncovering African Agency: Angola’s Management of China’s Credit Lines. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2013.

Corradetti, Claudio. “The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory.” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011). http://www.iep.utm.edu/frankfur/.

Corrigan, Lisa Marie. “Reimagining Black Power: Prison Manifestos and the Strategies of Regeneration in the Rewriting of Black Identity, 1969-2002” PhD (2006).

Cortada, James W. “How New Technologies Spread: Lessons from Computing Technologies.” Technol 54, no. 2 (April 2013): 229–261. doi:10.1353/tech.2013.0081.

Cottle, Simon. “Media and the Arab Uprisings of 2011: Research Notes.” Journalism 12, no. 5 (2011): 647–659.

Cottle, Simon, and L. Lester, eds. Transnational Protests and the Media. New York: Peter Lang, 2011.

Council of the European Union. Granada Ministerial Declaration on the European Digital Agenda. Granada: Council of the European Union, 2010. http://www.eu2010.es/export/sites/presidencia/comun/descargas/Ministerios/en_declaracion_granada.pdf.

———. “Granada Ministerial Declaration on the European Digital Agenda. Agreed on 19 April 2010.” Granada: Council of the European Union, 2010. http://www.eu2010.es/export/sites/presidencia/comun/descargas/Ministerios/en_declaracion_granada.pdf.

Crampton, Jeremy W. The Political Mapping of Cyberspace. University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Crary, Jonathan. Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990.

Criado, J. I., Gascó, M., and Jiménez, C. E. Marco Iberoamericano De Interoperabilidad. Buenos Aires: CLAD, 2010. http://www.clad.org/documentos/otros-documentos/documentos-xii-conferencia-iberoamericana-de-ministros-2010/marco-iberoamericano-de-interoperabilidad/at_download/file.

Crow, B., N. Zlatunich, and B. Fulfrost. “Mapping Global Inequalities: Beyond Income Inequality to Multi-dimensional Inequalities.” Journal of International Development, 21, no. 8 (2009): 1051–1065.

Cruz-Malave, Arnaldo, and Martin Manalansan, eds. Queer Globalizations: Citizenship and the Afterlife of Colonialism. New York: NYU Press, 2002.

Cull, Nicholas J. “The Long Road to Public Diplomacy 2.0: The Internet in US Public Diplomacy.” International Studies Review 15, no. 1 (2013): 123–139. doi:10.1111/misr.12026.

Culpitt, Ian. “Michel Foucault, Social Policy and ‘Limit Experience.” Victoria University of Wellington, n.d.

Cummings, J. N., and Kiesler, S. “Collaborative Research Across Disciplinary and Organizational Boundaries.” Social Studies of Science 35, no. 5 (2005): 703–722.

Cupples, J. “Love and Money in an Age of Neoliberalism: Gender, Work, and Single Motherhood in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua.” Environment and Planning 37, no. 2 (2005): 305–322.

D, Chuck. “EMpTyV; Blackfaces Reduced to Blackface. Silently Designing a Dumbed Generation in America” (10). http://publicenemy.com.

Dahlgren, P. Media and Political Engagement: Citizens, Communication, and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2009.

Darier, Eric, ed. Discourses of the Environment. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.

Datta, R. Final Report on Pilogint Rural BPO Services Through Telecenters. Noida: Drishtee foundation, IDRC, 2011. http://drishteefoundation.org/DF_Rural_BPO_Piloting_Final%20Report.doc.

Davidson, Arnold. The Emergence of Sexuality: Historical Epistemology and the Formation of Concepts. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Davidson, Basil, ed. The Search for Africa: History, Culture, and Politics. New York: Times Books, 1994.

Davis, Angela Y. “Political Prisoners, Prisons, and Black Liberation” If They Come in the Morning: Voices of Resistance (1971).

Davis-Floyd, Robbie, and Dumit, Joseph, eds. Cyborg Babies: From Techno-Sex to Techno-Tots. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Davison, W.P. “The Third-person Effect in Communication.” Public Opinion Quarterly (1983).

Deacon, Roger. Fabricating Foucault: Rationalising the Management of Individuals. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2003.

Dean, Mitchell. Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society. London: Sage, 1999.

Debord, Guy. The Society of the Spectacle. New York: Black and Red, 1967.

Debray, Regis. Media Manifestos. New York: Verso, 1996.

Defense, US Department of. “Insurgent.” Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms JP 1–02 (12). dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp1_02.pdf.

DeGrazia, Edward. Girls Lean Back Everywhere: The Law of Obscenity and the Assault on Genuis. New York: Random House, 1992.

Deibert, R. J., Palfrey, J. G., Rohozinski, R., and Zittrain, J., eds. Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

Deleuze, Gilles. “Foucault.” In The Foucault Phenomenon: The Problematics of Style, translated by Paul Bove, Foucault Minneapolis:vii–xl. University of Minnesota, 1988.

———. “Postscript on the Societies of Control.” October 59 (1992): 3–7.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus. Vol. 2. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

———. Anti-Oedipus. Vol. 1. New York: Penguin Classics, 2009.

Deleuze, Gilles. Foucault. Translated by Hand, Sean. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1988.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Foucault, Michel. “Intellectuals and Power: A Conversation Between Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze | Libcom.org.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://libcom.org/library/intellectuals-power-a-conversation-between-michel-foucault-and-gilles-deleuze.

Dell, M. “The Digital Sector Can Make Poor Nations Prosper,” 2006. http://www.financialexpress-bd.com/index3.asp?cnd=5/9/2006%C2%A7ion_id=4&newsid=239.

Dencik, Lina. “Alternative News Sites and the Complexities of ‘space’.” New Media & Society (February 7, 2013). doi:10.1177/1461444812471812.

Denzin, Norman K., and Michael D. Giardina. Global Dimensions of Qualitative Inquiry. Left Coast Press, 2013.

Der Derian, James. Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network. London: Routledge, 2009.

Derrida, Jacques. Monolingualism of the Other; or, the Prosthesis of Origin. Stanford: Stanford University, 1998.

———. Of Grammatology. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Corrected. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

———. Writing and Difference. New York: Routledge, 1978.

DeSanctis, G., and M.S. Poole. “Organizations and Communication.” In Understanding the Use of Group Decision Support Systems: The Theory of Adaptive Structuration. Vol. Organizations and Communication Newbury Park, CA. Sage, 1990.

Diffrient, David Scott. “History as Mystery and Beauty in the 1940s House.” Film & History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Film and Television Studies 37, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 43–53.

Van Dijk, J. “‘Digital Divide Research, Achievements and Shortcomings’.” Poetics 34, no. 4–5 (1006): 221–235.

DiMaggio, P., E. Hargatti, W.R. Neumann, and J.P. Robinson. “Social Implications of the Internet.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 307–336.

DiMaggio, P., E. Hargittai, C. Celeste, and S. Shafer. “From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use: A Literature Review and Agenda for Research on Digital Inequality.” In Social Inequality, edited by K. Neckerman, 355–400. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, n.d.

Dimitrova, Daniela V., and Matt Neznanski. “Online Journalism and the War in Cyberspace: A Comparison Between U.S. and International Newspapers.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12, no. 1 (2006). http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue1/dimitrova.htm.

Dipert, Randall R. “Other-Than-Internet (oti) Cyberwarfare: Challenges for Ethics, Law, and Policy.” Journal of Military Ethics 12, no. 1 (2013): 34–53. doi:10.1080/15027570.2013.785126.

Donner, J. Research Approaches to Mobile Use in the Developing World: A Review of the Literature. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2008.

Douglas, Mary, and Aaron Wildavsky. Can We Know the Risks We Face?, n.d.

———. Risks Are Selected, n.d.

Downey, Gary Lee, Dumit, Joseph, and Sharon Traweek, eds. Cyborgs and Citadels: Anthropological Interventions into Technohumanisms. Santa Fe: School for American Research, 1996.

Downey, Gary Lee, and Joseph Dumit, eds. Cyborgs and Citadels: Anthropological Interventions in Emerging Sciences and Technologies. Santa Fe: School of American Research, 1998.

Downing, Gary. “Virtual Youth: Non-heterosexual Young People’s Use of the Internet to Negotiate Their Identities and Socio-sexual Relations.” Children’s Geographies 11, no. 1 (2013): 44–58. doi:10.1080/14733285.2013.743280.

Downing, J. Internationalizing Media Theory: Transition, Power, Culture. London: SAGE, 1996.

Drake, William J. “Reframing Internet Governance Discourse: Fifteen Baseline Propositions.” In Workshop on Internet Governance. New York, 2004.

Drake, W. J. Reforming Internet Governance: Perspectives from the Working Group on Internet Governance. New York: UN ICT Task Force, 2005. http://www.wgig.org/docs/book/WGIG_book.pdf.

Dreyfus, Hubert, and Paul Rabinow. Michel Foucault, Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1983.

DuBois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Random House, 2003.

Dumm, Thomas L. Michel Foucault and the Politics of Freedom. Vol. 9. Modernity and Political Thought. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.

Duncan, Philip T. “The Discursive Protection of National Interests: Indigenous Erasure in Internet News Revisions.” Journal of Language and Politics 11, no. 3 (2012): 357–381. doi:10.1075/jlp.11.3.03dun.

Duncombe, R. “Development Informatics Working Paper No. 48 – Understanding Mobile Phone Impact on Livelihoods in Developing Countries: A New Research Framework (School of Environment and Development – The University of Manchester),” 2012. http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/research/publications/wp/di/di_wp48.htm.

Dunn, Kevin C., and Timothy M. Shaw. Africa’s Challenge To International Relations Theory. Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.

During, Simon. Foucault and Literature: Towards a Genealogy of Writing. London and New York: Routledge, 1992.

Duschinsky, Robbie. “The First Great Insurrection Against Global Systems: Foucault’s Writings on the Iranian Revolution.” European Journal of Social Theory 9, no. 4 (2006): 547–558.

Dutton, W. H. “Addressing the Issues of Internet Governance for Development: A Framework for Setting an Agenda for Effective Coordination.” Oxford Internet Institute (2006). http://people.oii.ox.ac.uk/dutton/wp-content/uploads/2006/07/Dutton-IG4D-30July06.pdf.

———. “Through the Network (of Networks) – the Fifth Estate. Inaugural Lecture, Examination Schools, University of Oxford, 15 October 2007.” 2007. http://people.oii.ox.ac.uk/dutton/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/5th-estate-lecture-text.pdf.

Dutton, W. H., Dopatka, A., Hills, M., Law, G., and Nash, V. Freedom of Connection – Freedom of Expression: The Changing Legal and Regulatory Ecology Shaping the Internet, 2010. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1654464.

Dymond, A, and S Oestmann. “Rural ICT Toolkit for Africa.” infoDev, 2004.

Dymond, A. “Telecommunications Challenges in Developing Countries: Asymmetric Interconnection Charges for Rural Areas. World Bank Working Paper No.27.” Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2004.

Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcom: The Myth and Meaning of Malcom X. Oxford, UK: Oxford University, 1995.

Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

Eberly, Rosa. Citizen Critics: Literary Public Spheres. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, 2000.

Echeberra, Raul. “Possible Changes to the Internet Governance Systems: Root Servers, IP Addresses, and Domain Names.” In Proposals Repository of Internet Governance Project. WGIG, 2005.

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Regional Progress and Strategies Towards Building the Information Society in Asia and the Pacific, 2010. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/13382_RegionalProgressWSISSTESCAP25551.pdf.

Economic Commission for Africa. “SCAN-ICT. Indicators of Information and Communications Technologies.” Addis Ababa: ECA, 2003. http://www.uneca.org/aisi/docs/ScanICT.pdf.

Editor, rfc. “Internet Official Protocol Standards.” Accessed February 26, 2013. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5000.html.

Edoho, Felix. “Information and Communications Technologies in the Age of Globalization: Challenges and Opportunities for Africa.” African Journal of Economic and Management Studies 4, no. 1 (April 5, 2013): 1–1.

Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, n.d.

Edwards, Leigh H. “The Endless End of Frontier Mythology: PBS’s Frontier House 2002.” Film & History: An Interdisciplinary Journal Of 37, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 29–34.

Eickelman, Dale F., and Jon W. Anderson, eds. New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2003.

Elden, Stuart. Mapping the Present Heidegger, Foucault & the Project of a Spatial History. London: Continuum, 2001.

Elder, G. The Globalization of Sexuality. Vol. 30 (1), 2006.

Elkhodr, Mahmoud, Seyed Shahrestani, and Hon Cheung. “A Review of Mobile Location Privacy in the Internet of Things.” In 2012 10th International Conference on ICT and Knowledge Engineering (ICT Knowledge Engineering), 266 –272, 2012. doi:10.1109/ICTKE.2012.6408566.

Emenyo̲nu, Ernest, Patrick J. Brunet, Oumarou Tiemtoré, and Marie-Claude Vettraino-Soulard. Ethics and the Internet in West Africa: Toward An Ethical Model Of Integration. IDRC, 2004.

Engebretsen, Elisabeth. “Queer Ethnography in Theory and Practice: Reflections on Studying Sexual Globalization and Women’s Queer Activism in Beijing.” The Graduate Journal of Social Sciences 5, no. 2 (2008): 88–116.

Englehardt, Tom. The American Way of War: How Bush’s Wars Became Obama’s. New York: Haymarket Books, 2010.

Epstein, Dmitry. “The Making of Institutions of Information Governance: The Case of the Internet Governance Forum.” Journal of Information Technology (April 23, 2013). doi:10.1057/jit.2013.8.

Eribon, Didier. Michel Foucault. Translated by Wing, Betsy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Eriksson, Johan, and Giampiero Giacomello. “Content Analysis in the Digital Age: Tools, Functions, and Implications for Security.” In The Secure Information Society, edited by Jörg Krüger, Bertram Nickolay, and Sandro Gaycken, 137–148. Springer London, 2013. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-4763-3_6.

Erumban, Abdul Azeez, and Simon B. de Jong. “Cross-country Differences in ICT Adoption: A Consequence of Culture?” Journal of World Business 41, no. 4 (December 2006): 302–314. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2006.08.005.

Escola del Consum de Catalunya. “Els Joves i Les nTICs D’accés a L’entorn Virtual,” 2010. http://www.consum.cat/documentacio/11857.pps.

Eshah, Khaled. “Libya and the Internet” (2005). http://nsrc.org/db/lookup/report.php?id=17&fromISO=LY.

Esposito, John L., and Dalia Mogahed. Who Speaks for Islam? What a Billion Muslims Really Think. New York: Gallup Press, 2007.

Esselaar, S., Gillwald, A., and Stork, C. “Towards an African e-Index 2007. Telecommunications Sector Performance in 16 African Countries.” Johannesburg: The Link Centre, 2007. http://www.researchictafrica.net/new/images/uploads/Telecommunication%20Sector%20Performance%20in%2016%20African%20Countries.pdf.

European Commission. “A Digital Agenda for Europe. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.” Brussels: European Commission, 2010. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/digital-agenda/documents/digital-agenda-communication-en.pdf.

———. “Bridging the Broadband Gap.” Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0129:FIN:EN:PDF.

———. “Development of Broadband Access in Europe. Accompanying Document to the Communication on Future Networks and the Internet.” Brussels: European Commission, 2008. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/future_internet/method_2008_survey_idate.pdf.

———. “Early Challenges Regarding the ‘Internet of Things’. Accompanying Document to the Communication on Future Networks and the Internet.” Brussels: European Commission, 2008. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/future_internet/swp_internet_things.pdf.

———. Europe’s Digital Competitiveness Report. Vol. I. Brussels: European Commission, 2010. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/cf/document.cfm?action=display&doc_id=667.

———. Europe’s Digital Competitiveness Report. Vol. II: ICT Country Profiles. Brussels: European Commission, 2010. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/cf/document.cfm?action=display&doc_id=668.

———. “Future Networks and the Internet. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.” Brussels: European Commission, 2008. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/future_internet/act_future_networks_internet_en.pdf.

———. “Indexing Broadband Performance. Accompanying Document to the Communication on Future Networks and the Internet.” Brussels: European Commission, 2008. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/future_internet/swp_bpi.pdf.

———. “Methodology for the Collection of Data on Broadband Prices. Brussels: European Commission.” Brussels: European Commission, 2008. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/future_internet/broadband_prices_methodology.pdf.

Eurostat. Methodological Manual For Statistics On Telecommunication Services. Brussels: European Commission, 2001. http://forum.europa.eu.int/irc/dsis/bmethods/info/data/new/embs/telecommunications1439.doc.

Evans, David Trevor. Sexual Citizenship: The Material Construction of Sexuality. Psychology Press, 1993.

Evans, Peter B., Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and Skocpol, Theda, eds. Bringing the State Back In. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Falola, Toyin. Nationalism and African Intellectuals. University Rochester Press, 2001.

———. The Power of African Cultures. University of Rochester Press, 2008.

Falzon, Christopher. Foucault and Social Dialogue: Beyond Fragmentation. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove, 1966.

Faris, R., and Villeneuve, R. “Measuring Global Internet Filtering.” In Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, edited by Deibert, R. J., Palfrey, J. G., Rohozinski, R., and Zittrain, J. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

Farr, Laura. “The Backwell Companion to Globalization.” In Globalization and Sexuality, The Backwell Companion to Globalization London:610–629. Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.

Farrell, G, and S Isaacs. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2007.

Farrell, G, S Isaacs, and M Trucano. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa, Volume 2: 53 Country Reports. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2007.

Faulkner, Maureen, and Michael Smerconish. Murdered by Mumia: A Life Sentence of Loss, Pain, and Injustice. Lyons Press, 2007.

Feder, Ellen. Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender. London: Oxford University, 2007.

———. Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender. London: Oxford University, 2007.

Feldman, Jonathan M. “From Warfare to ‘Shadow State’: Militarism, Economic Depletion, and Reconstruction.” SText 25, no. 2 (2007): 143–168.

Fernández-Ardèvol, M., and Ros, A. Communication Technologies in Latin America and Africa: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2009.

Fillip, B., and Foote, D. Making the Connection: Scaling Telecenters for Development. Washington, DC: AED, 2007. http://connection.aed.org/pages/MakingConnections.pdf.

Fine, M. Jonathan, W. Edward Karp, and F. Cedric Walker. “Cyber Medicine Disease Management,” February 9, 2000.

Fisher III, W. W. Promises to Keep. Technology, Law, and the Future of Entertainment. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2004.

Fisk, Richard. “Interview with Usama Bin Laden” (1996). informationclearinghouse.info/article7203.htm.

Fitzgerald, B. “Copyright Vision: Copyright Jails.” Fortitude Valley: On Line Opinion: Australia’s E-journal of Social and Political Debate (October 26, 2006). http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/print.asp?article=5068.

Fitzgerald, B., Coates, J., and Lewis, S., eds. Cultivating the Creative Commons. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 2007. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/archive/00006677/.

Fitzsimons, P. “Michel Foucault, Regimes of Punishment, and the Question of Liberty.” International Journal of the Sociology of Law 27, no. 4 (1999): 379–399.

Flickenger, R., ed. How To Accelerate Your Internet. Morrisville: INASP/ICTP, 2006. http://bwmo.net.

Flickenger, R., Aichele, C. E., Fonda, C., Forster, J., Howard, I., Krag, T., and Zennaro, M. “Wireless Networking in the Developing World,” 2006. http://wndw.net/.

Flynn, Major General Michael T. “Fixing Intel: A Blueprint for Making Intelligence Relevant in Afghanistan.” Center for a New American Security (January 2010).

Flynn, Thomas R. Toward an Existentialist Theory of History. Vol. 1. Sartre, Foucault and Historical Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1997.

Foerstel, Herbert N. Banned in the Media. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998.

Fogu, Claudio. “Digitalizing Historical Consciousness.” History and Theory 47 (2009): 103–121.

Folorunsho, A., and B. Hassan. “DIGITAL DIVIDE IN NIGERIAN IVORY TOWERS.” ICERI2012 Proceedings (2012): 587–587.

Fortunato, John A. Making Media Content: The Influence of Constituency Groups on Mass Media. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005.

Foth, M, V.M. Gonzalez, and W Taylor. “Designing for Place-Based Social Interaction of Urban Residents in Mexico, South Africa and Australia.” In OZCHI 2006 Proceedings. Sydney, Australia, 2006.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Random House, 1975.

———. Language, Counter-memory, Practice. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977.

———. What Is Enlightenment?, 1984.

Foucault, Michel, Graham Burchell, and Colin Gordon. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1991.

Fowles, Don C. “Current Scientific Views of Psychopathy.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 12, no. 3 (December 1, 2011): 93–94. doi:10.1177/1529100611429679.

Fox, S. Privacy Implications of Fast, Mobile Internet Access. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2008. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/Privacy_Fast_Mobile_Access.pdf.

Franklin, M.I. “NGOs and the ‘Information Society’: Grassroots Advocacy at the UN – A Cautionary Tale.” Review of Policy Research no. 24 (n.d.): 309–330. doi:10.1111/j.1541-1338.2007.00285.

Fraser, Nancy. Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

Frau-Meigs, Divina, and Jérémie Nicey, eds. From NWICO To WSIS. Intellect Ltd., 2012.

Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2007. Washington, DC: Freedom House, 2007. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2007.

———. Freedom in the World 2008. Washington, DC: Freedom House, 2008. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2008.

———. Freedom on the Net. Washington, DC: Freedom House, 2009. http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/specialreports/NetFreedom2009/FreedomOnTheNet_FullReport.pdf.

———. Freedom on the Net 2011. Washington, DC: Freedom House, 2011. http://www.freedomhouse.org/images/File/FotN/FOTN2011.pdf.

Fritz, Johannes. “The Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics by Andrew Chadwick and Philip N. Howard (eds). Abingdon: Routledge, 2010. 512pp., £27.99, ISBN 978 0 415 78058 2.” Political Studies Review 11, no. 2 (2013): 268–268. doi:10.1111/1478-9302.12016_66.

Fuchs, Christian. Foundations of Critical Media and Information Studies. Routledge, 2011.

Fundació Observatori per a la Societat de la Informació de Catalunya. El Sector Empresarial De Les Tecnologies De La Informació i La Comunicació a Catalunya, 2009. Barcelona: FOBSIC, 2010. http://www.fobsic.net/opencms/opencms/ca/index?contentPath=/ca/nav_esq/Estudis_i_Informes/Estudis_TIC/2010_Sector_TICx09¢erPage=nivell2.jsp.

Fundación Auna. “La India: El Elefante De La Industria Del Software.” Notas De Análisis y Prospectiva 12 (November 2005). http://www.fundacionauna.com/areas/25_publicaciones/india.pdf.

Gajjala, Radhika. Cyberculture and the Subaltern: Weavings of the Virtual and Real. Lexington Books, 2012.

Galloway, Alexander R. Protocol: How Control Exists After Decentralization. The MIT Press, 2006.

Gamson, Joshua, and Dawne Moon. “The Sociology of Sexualities: Queer and Beyond.” Annual Review of Sociology 30, no. 1 (2004): 47–64.

Gapps, Stephen. “Mobile Monuments: A View of Historical Reenactment and Authenticity from Inside the Costume Cupboard of History.” Rethinking History 13, no. 3 (2009): 395–409.

García Alba, J., ed. Economic Development and Inclusion Through Local Broadband Access Networks. Washington, DC: Multilateral Investment Fund, Inter‐American Development Bank, 2009. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx? docnum=2118570.

Garry, Patrick. An American Paradox: Censorship in a Nation of Free Speech. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993.

Gates, Kelly. “Identifying the 9/11 Faces of Terror.” Cultural Studies 20, no. 4 (2006): 417–440.

Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender & Identity: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2002.

Gehl, Robert. “Ladders, Samurai, and Blue Collars: Personal Branding in Web 2.0.” First Monday 16, no. 9–5 (2011). http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3579/3041.

Gezari, Vanessa. “Crossfire in Kandahar: Afghanistan’s New Journalists Navigate an Ambiguous War.” Columbia Journalism Review (February 2011): Cover.

———, May 2011.

Ghannam, Jeffrey. “Social Media in the Arab World: Leading Up to the Uprisings of 2011.” Center for International Media Assistance (3).

Ghezzi, Antonio, Michael Georgiades, Peter Reichl, Carla Di Cairano-Gilfedder, Riccardo Mangiaracina, and Nicolas Le Sauze. “GENERATING INNOVATIVE INTERCONNECTION BUSINESS MODELS FOR THE FUTURE INTERNET.” Info 15, no. 4 (June 21, 2013): 3–3.

Gibson, James Williams. Warrior Dreams: Violence and Manhood in Post-Vietnam America. New York: Hill and Wang, 1994.

Giddens, Anthony. Fate, Risk, and Security, n.d.

———. “Risk and Responsibility.” The Modern Law Review 62, no. 1 (January 1999): 1–10.

———. The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. University of California Press, 1986.

Gillwald, A, A Milek, and C Stork. Gender Assessment of ICT Access and Usage in Africa. Johannesburg: Research ICT Africa, 2010.

Gillwald, A, and Stork, C. Towards an African ICT e-Index: Towards Evidence Based ICT Policy in Africa. Johannesburg: The Link Centre, 2007. http://lirne.net/test/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/gillwald-and-stork-2007.pdf.

———. Towards Evidence-Based ICT Policy and Regulation: ICT Access and Usage in Africa. Vol 1 Policy Paper 2. Johannesburg: Research ICT Africa, 2009. http://www.researchictafrica.net/new/images/uploads/ria-policy-paper_ict-access-and-usage-2008.pdf.

———. Towards the African e-Index: ICT Access and Usage in 16 African Countries. Johannesburg: The Link Centre, 2008. http://www.researchictafrica.net/images/upload/Cairo.pdf.

Gillwald, A. (Dir.). Fair Access to Internet Report. Johannesburg: The Link Centre, 2004. http://www.researchictafrica.net/images/upload/FAIR%2018.03.04%20v17.pdf.

———. ICT Sector Performance in Africa: A Review of Seven African Countries. Johannesburg: The Link Centre, 2004. http://www.researchictafrica.net/images/upload/01329%20ICT%20BOOK%20-%2001-32.pdf.

Gillwald, A. (Ed.). Towards an African e-Index. Household and Individual ICT Access and Usage in 10 African Countries. Johannesburg: The Link Centre, 2005. http://www.researchictafrica.net/images/upload/Toward2.pdf.

Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

———. There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack: The Cultural Politics of Race and Nation. New York: Routledge, 2002.

GISPA. “GISPA.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.gispa.org.gh/news/.

Gitelman, Lisa. Always Already New. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2006.

Gleick, James. The Information: a History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon Books, 2011.

———. The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon, 2011.

Glenn, Cathy B. “Queering the (Sacred) Body Politic: Considering the Performative Cultural Politics of The Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence.” Theory & Event 7, no. 1 (2003). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v007/7.1glenn.html.

Glott, Ruediger, Philipp Schmidt, and Rishab Ghosh. “Wikipedia Survey – First Results: Working Draft” (9). merit.unu.edu.

Goff, Patricia, and Kevin C. Dunn. Identity and Global Politics: Theoretical and Empirical Elaborations. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Goff, Patricia M. Limits to Liberalization: Local Culture in a Global Marketplace. Cornell University Press, 2007.

Goldstein, Jan, ed. Foucault and the Writing of History. Oxford, UK and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994.

Gomez, Ricardo. “When You Do Not Have a Computer: Public-access Computing in Developing Countries.” Information Technology for Development (n.d.): 1–18. Accessed January 10, 2013. doi:10.1080/02681102.2012.751573.

Gomez, Ricardo, S Pather, and B Dosono. “Public Access Computing in South Africa: Old Lessons and New Challenges.” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries 52, no. 1 (2012).

Gómez, R, and Camacho, K. “Users of ICT at Public Access Centers: Age, Education, Gender and Income Differences in Users.” International Journal of Information and Communication Technologies for Human Development 3, no. 1 (2011): 1–20.

Gómez, R. “Measuring Global Public Access to ICT. CIS Working Paper No. 7.” Seattle: University of Washington. Accessed July 10, 2009. http://www.cis.washington.edu/depository/landscape/documents/CIS-WorkingPaperNo7.pdf.

Gómez, R., Ambikar, R., and Coward, C. “Libraries, Telecentres and Cybercafes. An International Study of Public Access Information Venues.” In Performance Measurement and Metrics 10, no. 1 (2009): 33–48.

Gómez, R., and Gould, E. “The ‘cool Factor’ of Public Access to ICT: Users’ Perceptions of Trust in Libraries, Telecentres and Cybercafés in Developing Countries.” Information Technology & People 23, no. 3 (2010): 247–264.

Gorman-Murray, A. “The Globalization of Sexuality.” Cultural Geographies 13, no. 2 (2006): 308–309.

Gosse, Van, and Kavita Philip. “Mumia Abu-Jamal and the Social Wage of Whiteness.” Radical History Review Fall (2001).

Gottlieb, Gabriele. “Race, Resistance, and State Repression: The Case of Mumia Abu-Jamal” Civil Rights Movement Revisited: Critical Perspectives on Racial Equality in the United States (2001).

Gould, Deborah. Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP’s Fight Against AIDS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, n.d.

Graham, Gary, and Anita Greenhill. “Exploring Interaction: Print and Online News Media Synergies.” Internet Research 23, no. 1 (January 25, 2013): 89–108. doi:10.1108/10662241311295791.

Gramsci, Antonio. Prison Notebooks. New York: Columbia University, 1992.

———. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Edited by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith. International Publishers Co, 1971.

———. The Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings, 1916-1935. Edited by David Forgacs. New York: NYU Press, 2000.

Gray, Herman. “Black Masculinity and Visual Culture.” Callaloo 8 (1995): 401–405.

Greco, M. Illness as a Work of Thought. A Foucauldian Perspective on Psychosomatics. London: Routledge, 1998.

Greenstein, S., and McDevitt, R. “Measuring the Broadband Bonus in Thirty OECD Countries – Papers – OECD iLibrary,” 2012. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/measuring-the-broadband-bonus-in-thirty-oecd-countries_5k9bcwkg3hwf-en.

Greenwood, J. “The Third Industrial Revolution: Technology, Productivity, and Income Inequality.” Economic Review QII (1999): 2–12.

Gregg, Melissa. “A Neglected History: Richard Hoggart’s Discourse of Empathy.” Rethinking History 7, no. 3 (2003): 285–306.

Gregg, Melissa, and Gregory J. Seigworth, eds. The Affect Theory Reader. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

Grimmett, Richard. “Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2010.” Congressional Research Services RL32170 (27).

De Groot, Jerome. Consuming History: Historians and Heritage in Contemporary Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 2008.

———. “‘Perpetually Dividing and Suturing the Past and Present’: Mad Men and the Illusions of History.” Rethinking History 15, no. 2 (2011): 269–285.

Gros Frédéric, and Lévy, C. Foucault Et La Philosophie Antique. Paris: Kimé, 2003.

Gros, Frédéric, ed. Foucault Et Le Courage De La Vérité. Presses Universitaires de France, 2002.

Grossberg, Lawrence. We Gotta Get Out of This Place: Popular Conservatism and Postmodern Culture. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Grusin, Richard. Premediation: Affect and Mediality After 9/11. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Guerra, M., Nicolai, C., Jordán, V., and Hilbert, M. R. Panorama Digital 2007 De América Latina y El Caribe: Avances y Desafíos De Las Políticas Para El Desarrollo Con Las Tecnologías De Información y Comunicaciones. Documento Abreviado. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL/ECLAC, 2008. http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/2/33552/LCW.202_E.pdf.

Guha, Ranajit, and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, eds. Selected Subaltern Studies. First Printing. Oxford University Press, USA, 1988.

Guha, Ranajit, and Spivak, Gayatri C., eds. Selected Subaltern Studies. Delhi: Oxford University Press India, 1998.

Gusterson, Hugh. “Can the Insurgent Speak?” (2011).

———. “Paranoid, Potbellied Stalinist Gets Nuclear Weapons: How the U.S. Print Media Cover North Korea” (n.d.).

Gutting, Gary. Michel Foucault’s Archaeology of Scientific Reason. Modern European Philosophy Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Gutting, Gary, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Haber, Honi Fern. Beyond Postmodern Politics: Lyotard, Rorty, Foucault. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Habermas, Jurgen. “Some Questions Concerning the Theory of Power: Foucault Again.” In The Philosophical Discourse of Humanity, 266–293. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987.

———. “The Genealogical Writing of History: On Some Aporias in Foucault’s Theory of Power.” Translated by Ostrander, Gregory. Merkur no. 429 (n.d.): 245–253.

Hacking, Ian. “The Normal State” (n.d.): 160–169.

———. “Michel Foucault’s Immature Science.” Nous no. 13 (1979): 39–51.

Hafez, K., ed. Arab Media: Power and Weakness. London: Continuum, 2007.

Hafner, K., and Lyon, M. Where Wizards Stay up Late: The Origins of the Internet. New York: Touchstone, 1996.

Haight, Anne. Banned Books: Informal Notes on Some Books Banned for Various Reasons at Various Times and in Various Places. New York: Bowker, 1970.

Hakken, David. “Computing and Social Change: New Technology and Workplace Transformation, 1980-1990.” Annual Review of Anthropology 22 (1993): 107–32.

Halavais, A. Search Engine Society. Cambridge: Polity, 2008.

Hallin, Daniel. The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

———. We Keep America on Top of the World. London: Routledge, 1994.

Halperin, David. Saint Foucault: Towards a Gay Historiography. New York: Oxford University, 1995.

———. “Is There a History of Sexuality?” History and Theory 28, no. 3 (October 1989): 257–274.

———. Saint Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. New York: Oxford University, 1995.

Halperin, David M. “Bringing Out Michel Foucault.” Salmagundi no. 97 (Winter 1993): 69–93.

———. “Forgetting Foucault: Acts, Identities and the History of Sexuality.” Representations no. 63 (Summer 1998): 93–.

Hammond, Philip. Media, War and Postmodernity. London: Routledge, 2007.

Hamza, M., ed. Applied Simulation and Modelling. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference 2004. Rhodes: ACTA Press, 2004.

Han, Béatrice. Foucault’s Critical Project: Between the Transcendental and the Historical. California: Stanford University Press, 2003.

Hanssen, Beatrice. Critique of Violence: Between Poststructuralism and Critical Theory. New York and London: Routledge, 2000.

Haraway, Donna. Primate Visions, n.d.

Harbeson, John, and Rothchild, Donald, eds. Africa in World Politics: Reforming Political Order. 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2009.

Harrigan, Pat, and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, eds. First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Genre. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

Hartley, John, Jean Burgess, and Axel Bruns, eds. A Companion to New Media Dynamics. 1st ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.

Haver, William W. The Body of This Death. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.

Haver, William W., trans. “The Standpoint of Active Intuition (Koiteki chokkan no tachiba)” Translation, 1935 2008.

Hayden, Cori. Neoliberalism’s Nature, n.d.

Hayes, A.F., D.A. Scheufele, and M.E. Huge. “Nonparticipation as Self-censorship.” Political Behavior (2006).

Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Heeks, R. “e-Africa and m-Africa. How Can ICTs Deliver?” ODI, 2007.

———. Offshoring to Africa. DIG eDevelopment Briefings. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management, 2005.

Heeks, R. “ICT4D 2.0: The Next Phase of Applying ICT for International Development.” Computer 41, no. 6 (June 2008): 26–33.

———. “i-Development Not e-Development: Special Issue on ICTs and Development.” Journal of Internation Development 14, no. 1 (2002): 1–11.

———. “Theorizing ICT4D Research.” Information Technologies and International Development 3, no. 3 (n.d.): 1–4. Accessed March 29, 2007.

Heeks, R. Analysing the Software Sector in Developing Countries Using Competitive Advantage Theory. Development Informatics Working Paper Series, No.25/2006. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management, 2006. http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/di_wp25.htm.

———. Reframing the Role of Telecentres in Development. DIG eDevelopment Briefings, No.2/2005. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management, 2005. http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/short/DIGBriefing2Telecentres.doc.

Heeks, R. Software Strategies in Developing Countries. Development Informatics Working Paper Series, No.6/1999. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management, 1999. http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/di_wp06.htm.

Heeks, R., and Kenny, C. J. The Economics of ICTs and Global Inequality: Convergence or Divergence for Developing Countries?. Development Informatics Working Paper Series, No.10a/2002. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management, 2002. http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/research/publications/wp/di/di_wp10a.htm.

Heidegger, Martin. The Question Concerning Technology, 1977.

Heilbroner, Robert. “Do Machines Make History.” Technology and Culture 8 (1967): 335–345.

———. “Technological Determinism Reconsidered” (1992).

Heiner, Brady T. “Foucault and the Black Panthers.” City 11, no. 3 (2007).

Hekman, Susan, ed. Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault. Re-reading the Canon. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.

Helmreich, Stefan. “Species of Biocapital.” Science as Culture 17, no. 4 (2008): 463–478.

Henry, Charles P. “The Political Role of the Bad Nigger.” Journal of Black Studies 11 (June 1981): 461–482.

Herbst, Jeffrey. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Hess, David. Key Concepts in Science Studies. New York University, 1997.

———. Science and Technology in a Multicultural World: The Cultural Politics of Facts and Artifacts. New York: Columbia, 1995.

Hessel, S. Indignez-vous! Montpellier: Indigène éditions, 2010.

Heyes, Cressida. Self-Transformations: Foucault, Ethics, and Normalized Bodies. London: Oxford University, 2007.

———. Self-Transformations: Foucault, Ethics, and Normalized Bodies. London: Oxford University, 2007.

Hillis, Ken. Online a Lot of the Time: Ritual, Fetish, Sign. Duke University Press Books, 2009.


Hoggart, Richard. The Uses of Literacy: Aspects of Working-class Life, with Special References to Publications and Entertainments. London: Chatto and Windus, 1971.

Hoofd, Ingrid M. Ambiguities of Activism: Alter-Globalism and the Imperatives of Speed. Routledge, 2012.

hooks, bell, and Cornel West. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1991.

Horkheimer, Max. Notes on Science and the Crisis, 1932.

Horrigan, J. B. Broadband: What’s All the Fuss About? Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2007. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/BroadBand%20Fuss.pdf.

Horrigan, J. B., Stolp, C., and Wilson, R. H. “Broadband Utilization in Space: Effects of Population and Economic Structure.” The Information Society 22, no. 5 (2006): 341–354.

Howard, Philip N., and Muzammil M. Hussain. “The Role of Digital Media.” Journal of Democracy 22, no. 3 (2011): 35–48.

Howard, P. N., and Mazaheri, N. “Telecommunications Reform, Internet Use and Mobile Phone Adoption in the Developing World.” World Development 37, no. 7 (2009): 1159–1169.

Huck, Inga, Oliver Quiring, and Hans-Bernd Brosius. “Perceptual Phenomena in the Agenda Setting Process.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 21, no. 2 (2009): 139–164.

Hudson, H. “Universal Service in the Information Age.” Telecommunications Policy 18, no. 8 (1994): 658–667.

Huffer, Lynne. Mad for Foucault: Rethinking the Foundations of Queer Theory. New York: Columbia University, 2009.

———. Mad for Foucault: Rethinking the Foundations of Queer Theory. New York: Columbia University, 2009.

Hunt, Tristram. “Reality, Identity and Empathy: The Changing Face of Social History Television.” Journal of Social History (2006).

Hyden, Goran. African Politics in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Ibrahim, Youssef M. “Saudi Exile Warns More Attacks Are Planned.” New York Times A (11): 6.

———. “Saudis Strip Citizenship from Backer of Militants.” New York Times A (10): 15.

Ignatieff, Michael. “State, Civil Society and Total Institutions: A Critique of Recent Social Histories of Punishment.” In Social Control and the State, edited by Stanley Cohen and Andrew Scull, 3:75–105. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.

Ike, O.F. ICT for Education and Development: The Challenges of Meeting the Millennium Development Goals in Africa. Edited by E Ndukwe, C Rodriguez Casal, and N Nnoli-Edozien. Enugu: CIDJAP Publishers, 2007.


Inda, Jonathan Xavier, ed. Anthropologies of Modernity: Foucault, Governmentality, and Life Politics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

Inda, Jonathan Xavier. Targeting Immigrants: Government, Technology, and Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006.

Ingram, Gordon Brent, Anne-Marie Bouthilette, and Yolanda Retter. Queers in Space: Communities, Public Places, Sites of Resistance. San Francisco: Bay Press, 1997.

INTECO. Riesgos y Amenazas En Cloud Computing. Madrid: INTECO, 2011. http://cert.inteco.es/extfrontinteco/img/File/intecocert/EstudiosInformes/cert_inf_riesgos_y_amenazas_en_cloud_co.

International Telecommunication Union. Basic Course on Emergency Telecommunications. Geneva: ITU, 2004. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/youth/emergency_telecommunications/basic_course/menu.exe.

———. Definitions of World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators. Final Version (April 2007). Geneva: ITU, 2007. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/IndDef_e_v2007.pdf.

———. ITU Internet Report 2002: Internet for a Mobile Generation. Geneva: ITU, 2002.

———. ITU Internet Report 2003: The Birth of Broadband. Geneva: ITU, 2003.

———. Manual for Measuring ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals. Geneva: ITU, 2009. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/hhmanual/2009/material/HHManual2009.pdf.

———. Measuring Digital Opportunity. Seoul: ITU, 2005. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/wsisbridges/linked_docs/Background_papers/Measuring_Digital_Opp_Revised_31_O.

———. Measuring ICT Availability in Villages and Rural Areas. Geneva: ITU, 2008. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/Measuring%20ICT_web.pdf.

———. Measuring the Information Society – The ICT Development Index 2009. Geneva: ITU, 2009. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/material/IDI2009_w5.pdf.

———. Measuring The Information Society 2007: ICT Opportunity Index and World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators. Geneva: ITU, 2007.

———. Measuring the Information Society 2010. Geneva: ITU, 2010. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2010/Material/MIS_2010_without%20annex%204-e.pdf.

———. Measuring the Information Society 2011. Geneva: ITU, 2011. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2011/Material/MIS_2011_without_annex_5.pdf.

———. Measuring the WSIS Targets. A Statistical Framework. Geneva: ITU, 2011. http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/ind/D-IND-MEAS_WSIS-2011-PDF-E.pdf.

———. “National e-Strategies for Development: Global Status and Perspectives, 2010.” Geneva: ITU, 2010. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/cyb/app/docs/National_estrategies_for_development_2010.pdf.

———. Telecommunication Indicators Handbook. Geneva: ITU, 2005. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/handbook.pdf.

———. Telecommunication Regulatory Survey. Geneva: ITU, 2008. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Survey/survey08_en.rtf.

———. The Missing Link. Report of the Independent Commission for Worldwide Telecommunications Development (The Maitland Report). Geneva: ITU, 2010. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/sfo/missinglink/The_Missing_Ling_A4-E.pdf.

———. Use of Information and Communication Technology by the World’s Children and Youth. Geneva: ITU, 2008. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/Youth_2008.pdf.

———. World Information Society Report 2006. Geneva: ITU, 2006. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/worldinformationsociety/2006/WISR-low-web.pdf.

———. World Information Society Report 2007. Geneva: ITU, 2007. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/worldinformationsociety/2007/WISR07_full-free.pdf.

———. World Telecommunication Development Report 2002: Reinventing Telecoms. Geneva: ITU, 2002.

———. World Telecommunication Development Report 2003: Access Indicators for the Information Society. Geneva: ITU, 2003.

———. World Telecommunication Development Report: Mobile Cellular 1999. Geneva: ITU, 1999.

———. World Telecommunication Development Report: Universal Access. Geneva: ITU, 1998.

———. World Telecommunication Indicators. Geneva: ITU, 2001.

———. World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2006: Measuring ICT for Social and Economic Development. Geneva: ITU, 2006.

———. World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2010: Monitoring the WSIS Targets. Geneva: ITU, 2010. http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/ind/D-IND-WTDR-2010-PDF-E.pdf.

Introna, L. D., and Nissenbaum, H. “Shaping the Web: Why the Politics of Search Engines Matters.” The Information Society 16, no. 3 (2000): 169–185.

ISOC. “History of the Internet” (2011). http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/.

James, Joy. “The New Abolitionists: (Neo)slave Narrative and Contemporary Prison Writings” (2005).

Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism: Or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992.

Jansen, M. “Bridging the Gaps in Internet Development in Africa.” IDRC (2006). http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/15099/14/106156.pdf.

Jeffords, Susan. The Remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam War. Indiannapolis: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Jenkins, Henry. Convergence Culture. New York: NYU, 2006.

Jensen, M. Open Access. Lowering the Costs of International Bandwidth in Africa. APC Issue Papers Series, October 2006. Johannesburg: Association for Progressive Communications, 2006. http://rights.apc.org/documents/open_access_EN.pdf.

Jensen, M., and Mahan, A. K. “Toward a Single ICT Index. Considerations for the Formulation of a Single ICT Index for the ITU.” presented at the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Meeting, Geneva, December 13, 2007. http://www.itu.int/md/dologin_md.asp?lang=en&id=D06-DAP2B.1.3-C-0004!!PDF-E.

Jha, Manoj K., Bheem Kattel, and Marcus Carwell. “Modeling the Insurgent Activities with a Geographic Information System: A Case Study from Iraq.” Recent Advances in Circuit, Systems, Signal, and Telecommunications: 213–220.

Johnson, DL, Belding, Elizabeth, and van Stam, Gertjan. “Network Traffic Locality in a Rural African Village.” ICTD2012. ACM (2012).

Joll, Nicholas. “Contemporary Metaphilosophy.” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2010). http://www.iep.utm.edu/con-meta/#SH4b.

Jordana Casajuana, J. “Las Administraciones Públicas y La Promoción De La Sociedad De La Información: Opciones Estratégicas y Modalidades De Intervención.” Gestión y Análisis De Políticas Públicas 16 (1999): 17–28.

Jordana Casajuana, J., Sancho, D., and Welp, Y. “Les Polítiques Públiques De Promoció i Difusió De La Societat De La Informacio a Europa.” Coneixement i Societat: Revista d’Universitats, Recerca i Societat De La Informació 3 (2004): 54–77.

Joseph, Jonathan. “The Limits of Governmentality: Social Theory and the International.” European Journal of International Relations 16, no. 2 (2010): 223–246.

Joseph, Meera K. “Critical Theory for Women Empowerment Through ICT Studies.” Qualitative Research Journal 13, no. 2 (July 19, 2013): 4–4.

Joseph, Jonathan. “The Limits of Governmentality: Social Theory and the International.” European Journal of International Relations 16, no. 2 (2010): 223–46.

Journalism, Pew Research Center Project for Excellence in. “How the Media Have Covered Bin Laden’s  Death” (2011). journalism.org.

———. “Journalists in Iraq: A Survey of Reporters on the Front Lines.” (2007). journalism.org.

———. “Return to Normalcy? How the Media Have Covered the War on Terrorism” (28). journalism.org.

Judy, Michael. “Terrorism’s Virtual Safe Haven and the Effects on Terror Operations.” Global Security Studies 2, no. 1 (Winter 2011): 34–44.

Jung, Joo-Young. “Internet Connectedness and Its Social Origins: An Ecological Approach to Postaccess Digital Divides.” Communication Studies 59, no. 4 (2008): 322–339.

Kadhim, Abbas. Governance in the Middle East and North Africa: A Handbook. Routledge, 2013.

Kamal, A. The Law Of Cyber-Space. An Invitation To The Table Of Negotiations. Geneva: UNCTAD, 2005. http://www.un.int/kamal/thelawofcyberspace/The%20Law%20of%20Cyber-Space.pdf.

Kang, J., and Buchner, B. “Privacy In Atlantis.” Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 18, no. 1 (Fall 2004): 229–267.

Kant, Immanuel. “What Is Enlightenment?” (1784).

Kaplan, Amy. “September 11 in History.” In Homeland Insecurities: Transformations of Language and Space, September 11 in History London:, Durham:55–69. Routledge, Duke University Press, 2003.

Karakayali, Nedim. “Reading Bourdieu with Adorno The Limits of Critical Theory and Reflexive Sociology.” Sociology 38, no. 2 (April 1, 2004): 351–368. doi:10.1177/0038038504040869.

Karatzogianni, Athina. “A Cyberconflict Analysis of the Arab Uprisings” (2012). http://works.bepress.com/athina_karatzogianni/14.

Karolides, Nicholas. Banned Books: Literature Suppressed on Political Grounds. New York: Facts on File, 1998.

———. Censored Books II: Critical Perspectives, 1985-2000. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2002.

Katz, J. E., Rice, R. E., and Aspden, P. “The Internet, 1995-2000: Access, Civic Involvement, and Social Interaction.” American Behaviorial Scientist 45, no. 3 (2001): 405–419.

Katz, J. E., and Subramanian, R., eds. The Global Flow of Information. New York: NYU Press, n.d.

Katz, R. El Papel De Las TIC En El Desarrollo. Propuesta De América Latina a Los Retos Económicos Actuales. Madrid: Fundación Telefónica, 2009. http://cedoc.infd.edu.ar/upload/El_Papel_de_las_TIC_en_el_Desarrollo_Katz.pdf.

Keats, D.W. “Collaborative Development of Open Content: A Process Model to Unlock the Potential for African Universities.” First Monday 8, no. 2 (2003). http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue8_2/keats/index.html.

Keats, D.W., and J.P. Schmidt. “The Genesis and Emergence of Education 3.0 in Higher Education and Its Potential for Africa.” First Monday 12, no. 3 (2007). http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue12_3/keats/index.html.

Kelly, Mark G. E. The Political Philosophy of Michel Foucault. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Kelly, T. “Twenty Years of Measuring the Missing Link.” The Economist (October 2005). http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/sfo/missinglink/kelly-20-years.pdf.

Kendall, Gavin, and Gary Wickham. “Using Foucault’s Methods.” In Introducing Qualitative Methods. Sage Publications, 1999.

Kendie, Daniel. “How Relevant Are the Theories of Gramsci to the Study of African States?” (2000).

Kenny, C. J., and Keremane, R. “Toward Universal Telephone Access: Market Progress and Progress Beyond the Market.” Telecommunications Policy 31 (2007): 155–163.

Keogh, D, and Wood, T. Village Phone Replication Manual. Washington. Washington: Grameen Foundation USA, 2005. http://www.gfusa.org/pubdownload/dcl/index.php?GFUSA-VillagePhoneReplicationManualOct05.pdf.

Khan, Rimi. “Reading Cultural Studies, Reading Foucault.” Postmodern Culture 15, no. 1 (2004). http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.904/15.1khan.txt.

Kim, Myung Mi. Commons. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 2002.

Kim, Y.C., J.Y. Jung, and S.J. Ball-Rokeach. “Ethnicity, Place, and Communication Technology: Effects of Ethnicity on Multi-dimensional Internet Connectedness.” Information, Technology, and People 20 (2007): 282–303.

Kimmage, Daniel, and Kathleen Ridolfo. The War of Images and Ideas: How Sunni Insurgents in Iraq and Their Supporters Worldwide Are Using the Media. Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, 2007.

Kittler, Friedrich. “There Is No Software” (n.d.).

Kittur, Aniket, Ed Chi, Bryan A. Pendleton, Bongwon Suh, and Todd Mytkowicz. “Power of the Few Vs. Wisdom of the Crowd: Wikipedia and the Rise of the Bourgeoisie.” 25th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2007).

Klein, Lauren Frederica. “American Studies After the Internet.” American Quarterly 64, no. 4 (2012): 861–872. doi:10.1353/aq.2012.0044.

Kleinwachter, Wolfgang. “Internet Co-Governance – Towards a Multilayer Multiplayer Mechanism of Consultation, Coordination, and Cooperation (M3C3),” 2004.

Klimaszewski, C., and Nyce, J. M. Does Universal Access Mean Equitable Access?: What an Information Infrastructure Study of a Rural Romanian Community Can Tell Us. Bradford: Emerald, 2009.

Kline, Ronald R. “Beyond the Closed World.” History and Technology 0, no. 0 (0): 1–7. doi:10.1080/07341512.2012.756239.

Knight, Victoria. “An Investigation into the Mass Communication Consumption in a Closed Male Young Offenders Institution.” Particip@tions 2, no. 1 (August 2005): 1–32.

Kolhatkar, Sonali, and James Ingalls. Bleeding Afghanistan: Washington, Warlords and the Propaganda of Silence. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2006.

Kolko, J. Does Broadband Boost Local Economic Development? San Francisco: Public Policy Institute of California, 2010. http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/report/R_110JKR.pdf.

Kovach, Bill, and Tom Rosenstiel. The Elements of Journalism. New York: Three Rivers, 2007.

Krauss, K., and M. Turpin. “Towards the Emancipation of the ICT4D Researcher: Reflecting on a Case Study in Deep Rural South Africa.” In ICT and Development – Research Voices from Africa. International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP), Technical Commission 9 ” Relationship Between Computers and Society. Workshop at Makerere University, Uganda. Kampala: Ma, 2010. http://mak.ac.ug/documents/IFIP/TheEmancipationoftheICT4D.pdf.

Kretschmer, T. Information and Communication Technologies and Productivity Growth: A Survey of the Literature. OECD Digital Economy Papers No. 195. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k9bh3jllgs7-en.

Kuehn, Kathleen Mary. “‘There’s Got to Be a Review Democracy’: Communicative Capitalism, Neoliberal Citizenship and the Politics of Participation on the Consumer Evaluation Website Yelp.com.” International Journal of Communication no. 7 (2013): 607–625. doi:1932–8036/20130005.

Kurbalija, J., and Gelbstein, E. Internet Governance. Issues, Actors and Divides. Msida: DiploFoundation, 2005. http://textus.diplomacy.edu/textusbin/env/scripts/Pool/GetBin.asp?IDPool=641.

Kurgan, Laura. Close Up at a Distance: Mapping, Technology, and Politics. MIT Press, 2013.

Kuttab, Daoud. “The Arab Spring Has Yet to Focus on Media Freedoms.” Huffington Post (9). http://www.huffingtonpost.com/daoud-kuttab/the-arab-spring-has-yet-t_b_1135842.html?ref=fb&src=sp&comm_ref=false.

Labelle, R. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development. A Comprehensive Guidebook. New Delhi: APDIP, 2005. http://www.apdip.net/publications/ict4d/ict4dlabelle.pdf.

Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. 2nd ed. Verso, 2001.

Ladenson, Elisabeth. Dirt for Art’s Sake: Books on Trial from Madame Bovary to Lolita. Ithaca: Cornell University, 2007.

Lallana, E. C. An Overview of ICT Policies and e-Strategies of Select Asian Economies. New Delhi: APDIP, 2004. http://www.apdip.net/publications/ict4d/ict4dlallana.pdf.

Lamb, Andrew W. “Freedom, the Self, and Ethical Practice According to Michel Foucault.” International Philosophical Quarterly no. 35 (December 1995): 449–467.

Lancaster, Roger. “Sex, Science, and Pseudoscience in the Public Sphere.” Identities 13, no. 1 (2006): 101–138.

———. The Trouble With Nature: Sex in Science and Popular Culture. Berkeley: University of California, 2003.

Landsberg, Alison. “Memory, Empathy, and the Politics of Identification.” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 22 (2009): 221–229.

———. Prosthetic Memory. Columbia University Press: New York, 2004.

———. “Waking the Deadwood of History: Listening, Language and the ‘Aural Visceral’.” Rethinking History 14, no. 4 (2010): 531–549.

Lane, B., Sweet, S., Lewin, D., Sephton, J., and Petini, I. The Economic and Social Benefits of Mobile Services in Bangladesh. London: GSM Association, 2006. http://www.dirsi.net/english/files/Ovum%20Bangladesh%20Main%20report1f.pdf.

Langellier, Kristin M. “Personal Narratives: Perspectives on Theory and Research.” TPQ 9, no. 4 (1989): 243–276.

Lanier, J. You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto. London: Allen Lane, 2010.

Lash, Scott, and Celia Lury. Global Culture Industry. Cambridge: Polity, 2007.

Lash, S. “Genealogy and the Body: Foucault/Deleuze/Nietzsche.” Theory, Culture & Society 14, no. 1 (1985).

Latimer, Dan, ed. Contemporary Critical Theory. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989.

Latour, Bruno. “Has Critique Run Out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern.” Critical Inquiry 30, no. 2 (2004): 225–248.

———. Pandora’s Hope, n.d.

———. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1987.

———. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1993.

Lee, Francis L. F., Louis Leung, Jack Linchuan Qiu, and Donna S. C. Chu. Frontiers in New Media Research. Taylor & Francis, 2013.

Lee, E. “Viacom V. YouTube/Google: Their Lawyers Debate the Lawsuit.” The Utube Blog, April 15, 2007. http://theutubeblog.com/2007/04/15/viacom-v-youtubegoogle-their-lawyers-debate-lawsuit/.

LeFebvre, Henri. The Critique of Everyday Life. London: Verso, 1991.

Lehr, W. Measuring the Internet. The Data Challenge. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 194. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k9bhk5fzvzx-en.

LeMahieu, D.L. “Digital Memory, Moving Images, and the Absorption of Historical Experience.” Film & History: An Interdisciplinary Journal Of 41, no. 1 (Spring 2011).

Lemke, Thomas. “‘The Birth of Bio-politics’: Michel Foucault’s Lecture at the College De France on Neo-liberal Governmentality.” Economy and Society 30, no. 2 (2001): 190–207.

———. “‘The Birth of Bio-Politics’: Michel Foucault’s Lecture At the College De France on Neo-Liberal Governmentality.” Economy and Society 30, no. 2 (2001): 190–207.

Lessig, L. “Make Way for Copyright Chaos.” The New York Times, March 18, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/opinion/18lessig.html? ei=5088&en=a376e7886d4bcf62&ex=1331870400&partner=rssnyt&pagewanted=print.

Levi-Strauss, Claude. Le Pensee Sauvage, 1962.

Lev-On, Azi. “Another Flew over the Digital Divide: Internet Usage in the Arab-Palestinian Sector in Israel During Municipal Election Campaigns, 2008.” Israel Affairs 0, no. 0 (0): 1–16. doi:10.1080/13537121.2013.748292.

Levy, S. Hackers. Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Champaign: Gutenberg, 1984.

Lianos, Michalis. Social Control After Foucault. Vol. 1(3), 2003.

Lifton, Robert Jay, and Greg Mitchell. Hiroshima in America. New York: Putnam, 1995.

Lih, Andrew. The Wikipedia Revolution. New York: Hyperion, 2009.

Linenthal, Ed. Preserving Memory: The Struggle to Create America’s Holocaust Museum. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Lingel, Jessa. “The Digital Remains: Social Media and Practices of Online Grief.” The Information Society 29, no. 3 (2013): 190–195. doi:10.1080/01972243.2013.777311.

Link, Jurgen. “Maintaining Normality: On the Strategic Function of the Media in Wars of Extermination.” CultCrit 19 (1991): 55–65.

Link, Jurgen, and Mirko M. Hall. “From the ‘Power of the Norm’ to ‘Flexible Normalism’: Considerations After Foucault.” CultCrit 57 (2004).

Link, Jurgen, and Hall, Mirko M. “From the ‘Power of the Norm’ to ‘Flexible Normalism’: Considerations After Foucault.” Cultural Critique no. 57 (2004).

Lister, Martin. New Media: A Critical Introduction. Taylor & Francis US, 2009.

Liu, Ying, Jianping Wu, Qian Wu, and Ke Xu. “Recent Progress in the Study of the Next Generation Internet in China.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 371, no. 1987 (March 28, 2013). doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0387.

Livingston, Steven. Africa’s Evolving Ecosystems: A Pathway to Security and Stability. Research Papers. Africa Center for Strategic Studies, 2010.

Liyanage, H. Sustainability First. In Search of Telecentre Sustainability. Kotte: Sarvodaya Fusion, telecentre.org, 2009.

———. Theory of Change. Impact Assessment. Colombo: Sarvodaya – Fusion, 2009. http://harshaliyanage.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/theory-of-change.pdf.

LLC, ProQuest. “Economic Nationalism and Decolonization: West Africa in Comparative Perspective1.” Docstoc.com. Accessed December 5, 2012. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/68697209/Economic-nationalism-and-decolonization-West-Africa-in-comparative-perspective1.

Lockett, Christopher. “Accidental History: Mass Culture and HBO’s Rome.” JPFT (2010).

Lotman, Yurij, and Boris Uspensky. “Critical Theory Since 1965.” In On the Semiotic Mechanism of Culture. Vol. Critical Theory Since 1965 Sarasota, FL. University of Florida, 1989.

Luibheid, Eithne, and Lionel Jr. Cantu, eds. Queer Migrations: Sexuality, U.S. Citizenship, and Border Crossings. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2005.

Lunenfeld, Peter. The Digital Dialectic: New Essays on New Media. MIT Press, 2000.

Lupton, Deborah. Risk, n.d.

Luyt, B. “The One Laptop Per Child Project and the Negotiation of Technological Meaning.” First Monday 13, no. 6 (June 2, 2008). http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/2144/1971.

Lyons, Andrew P., and Harriet Lyons. Irregular Connections: A History of Anthropology and Sexuality. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.

Lyons, Andrew P., and Harriet Lyons, eds. Sexualities in Anthropology: A Reader. New York: Blackwell, 2011.

MacBride et al. Many Voices, One World. Paris: UNESCO, 1975. http://books.google.com/books?id=dV-oviiw7dwC&pg=PR4&lpg=PR1&hl=en&output=html_text.

Machill, Marcel. Who Controls the Internet? The Bertelsmann’s Foundation Recommendations for Internet Governance. Berlin: Bertelsmann Foundation, April 2001.

Maciel, Cristiano, and Vinicius Carvalho Pereira. “The Internet Generation and Its Representations of Death: Considerations for Posthumous Interaction Projects.” In Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 85–94. IHC  ’12. Porto Alegre, Brazil, Brazil: Brazilian Computer Society, 2012. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2393536.2393548.

MacLean, Don, ed. Internet Governance: A Grand Collaboration. New York: UN ICT Task Force, 2004.

MacLean, Don. Louder Voices: Strengthening Developing Country Participation in International ICT Decision-Making. Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation and the Panos Institute, 2002.

Mahan, A. K., and Melody, W. H., eds. “Stimulating Investment in Network Development: Roles For Regulators. Lyngby: World Dialogue on Regulation for Network Economies,” 2005. http://www.regulateonline.org/content/view/435/65/.

Manghani, Sunil. Image Studies: Theory and Practice. Routledge, 2012.

Manovitch, Lev. “The Language of New Media” (2001).

Mansell, R., and Wehn, U., eds. Knowledge Societies: Information Technology for Sustainable Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/1-4-9-1-1-2.html.

María del Rosario Guerra. “Plan TIC Colombia. En Línea Con El Futuro.” Ministra de Comunicaciones, Bogotá D.C., May 28, 2009. http://www.colombiaplantic.org.co/medios/docs/ministra1_plantic.pdf.

Maron, Jeremy. “Affective Historiography: Schindler’s List, Melodrama, and Historical Representation.” Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 27, no. 4 (2009): 66–94.

Marsden, Richard. The Nature of Capital: Marx After Foucault. Vol. 20. Studies in Social and Political Thought. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Martin, Luther H., Huck Gutman, and Patrick H. Hutton, eds. Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.

Marx, Karl. Capital. Vol. I, n.d.

———. Selected Writings. Edited by David McLellan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Marx, Karl, and Engels, Freidrich. “Manifesto of the Communist Party.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm.

MATAYONG, SUREENA, and Ahmad Kamil Mahmood. “The Review of Approaches to Knowledge Management System Studies.” Journal of Knowledge Management 17, no. 3 (May 24, 2013): 9–9.

Mathes, A. “Folksonomies: Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.” (n.d.). http://www.adammathes.com/academic/computer-mediated-communication/folksonomies.html.

Mathiason, John. Internet Governance: The State of Play. Internet Governance Project, September 2004.

Maumbe, Blessing M., and Julius J. Okello. Technology, Sustainability, and Rural Development in Africa. Idea Group Inc (IGI), 2013.

Maxian, W.A. “Media Systems Dependency Theory as a Theory of Power: Emotional Responses to the Ability and Inability to Access Information.” Communication PhD (December 2009).

Mayanja, M., Acevedo, M., Caicedo, S, and Buré, C. A Guidebook for Managing Telecentre Networks: Engineering a New Phase of the Telecentre Movement. Ottawa: IDRC, 2009. http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php? title=Special:Book&bookcmd=download&collection_id=2192d4c0a788e5fa&writer=rl&return_to=A+Gu.

Mayer-Schönberger, V. “Useful Void: The Art of Forgetting in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing. RWP07-022.” Cambridge: Harvard University, 2007. http://ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/Research/wpaper.nsf/rwp/RWP07-022/$File/rwp_07_022_mayer-schoenberger.pdf.

Mazrui, Ali A., and Alamin M. Mazrui. The Power of Babel: Language and Governance in the African Experience. 1st ed. University Of Chicago Press, 1998.

Mbarika, V, P Meso, and P Musa. “Telecommunications Stakeholder Perceptions of Teledensity: A Comparison of Stakeholders in the Latin American Region to Those in Sub-Saharan Africa.” In Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Manoa: University of Hawaii, 2007.

McCalman, Iain. “The Little Ship of Horrors: Reenacting Extreme History.” Criticism 46, no. 3 (2004): 477–486.

McChesney, Robert. The Problem of the Media. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2004.

McChesney, Robert W. Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy. The New Press, 2013.

McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics. New York: HarperPerennial, 1994.

McDaniel, Major Erin A., and Captain Julio A. Perez. “How to Visualize and Shape the Information Environment.” Field Artillery Novermber-December (2006): 26–33.

McDowell, Stephen D., Philip E. Steinberg, and Tami K. Tomasello. Managing the Infosphere: Governance, Technology, and Cultural Practice in Motion. Temple University Press, 2008.

McElroy, Ruth, and Rebecca Williams. “The Appeal of the Past in Historical Reality Television.” Media History 17, no. 1 (2011): 79–96.

McGann, Jerome. The Textual Condition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1991.

McGushin, Edward F. Foucault’s Askesis: An Introduction to the Philosophical Life. Northwestern University Press, 2007.

McKee, K. “Post-Foucauldian Governmentality: What Does It Offer Critical Social Policy Analysis?” Critical Social Policy 29, no. 3 (2009): 465–486.

McKinlay, Alan, and Starkey Ken, eds. Foucault, Management and Organization Theory. London: Sage Publications, 2004.

McLeod, Douglas, Wiliam Everland, and Amy Nathanson. “Support for Censorship of Violent and Misogynic Rap Lyrics: An Analysis of the Third Person Effect.” Communication Research 24, no. 2 (1997).

McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: Gingko, 2004.

McNay, Lois. Foucault and Feminism. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1993.

———. Foucault: A Critical Introduction. New York: Continuum, 1994.

McPhee, Robert, and Pamela Zaug. “Building Theories of Organization: The Constitutive Role of Communication.” In The Communicative Constitution of Organizations: a Framework for Explanation., Building Theories of Organization: The Constitutive Role of Communication:21–48, 2009.

Miller, Brian J., Peter Mundey, and Jonathan P. Hill. “Faith in the Age of Facebook: Exploring the Links Between Religion and Social Network Site Membership and Use.” Sociology of Religion (January 9, 2013). doi:10.1093/socrel/srs073.

Miller, Toby, and Alec McHoul. Popular Culture and Everyday Life. London: Sage, 1998.

Miller, James. “Foucault: The Secrets of a Man.” Salmagundi no. 88/89 (Fall /Winter 1991 1990): 311–332.

———. “Foucault’s Politics in Biographical Perspective.” Salmagundi no. 97 (Winter 1993): 30–44.

———. “Michel Foucault: The Heart Laid Bare.” Grand Street 10, no. 3 (1991): 53–64.

———. “Policing Discourse: A Response to David Halperin.” Salmagundi no. 97 (Winter 1992): 94–99.

———. The Passion of Michel Foucault. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993.

Mills, Catherine. “Agamben, Giorgio.” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2005). http://www.iep.utm.edu/agamben/.

Ministerio de Comunicaciones. Plan Nacional De Tecnologías De La Información y Las Comunicaciones. Bogotá: Ministerio de Comunicaciones de la República de Colombia, 2008. http://www.fps.gov.co/downloads/programatics.pdf.

———. “Plan TIC Colombia. En Línea Con El Futuro. Presentation by María Del Rosario Guerra, Ministra De Comunicaciones, Bogotá D.C., Mayo 28 De 2009.” presented at the Ministerio de Comunicaciones de la República de Colombia, Bogotá, 2009. http://www.colombiaplantic.org.co/medios/docs/ministra1_plantic.pdf.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas, ed. The Visual Culture Reader. New York: Routledge, 2002.

———. “Visual Culture Reader.” In Studying Visual Culture. Vol. Visual Culture Reader New York. Routledge, 2002.

Misuraca, G.C. e-Governance in Africa. From Theory to Action. A Handbook on ICTs for Local Governance. Trenton; Ottawa: Africa World Press; IDRC, 2007. http://www.idrc.ca/openebooks/369-0/.

Mitchell, W.J.T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

———. What Do Pictures Want? Chicago: University of Chicago, 2006.

Moeller, Susan. Shooting War: Photography and the American Experience of Combat. New York: Basic Books, 1989.

Mogrovejo, Norma. “Female Desires: Same-sex Relations and Transgender Practices Across Cultures.” In Sexual Preference, the Ugly Duckling of Feminist Demands: The Lesbian Movement in Mexico, Female desires: same:-sex relations and transgender practices across cultures New York:308–336. Columbia University, 1999.

Moist, Kevin M., and David Banash. Contemporary Collecting: Objects, Practices, and the Fate of Things. Scarecrow Press, 2013.

Monroy-Hernández, Andrés, danah boyd, Emre Kiciman, Munmun De Choudhury, and Scott Counts. “The New War Correspondents: He Rise of Civic Media Curation in Urban Warfare.” In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1443–1452. CSCW  ’13. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2013. doi:10.1145/2441776.2441938.

Montoya, Michael. Making the Mexican Diabetic: Race, Science, and the Genetics of Inequality. Berkeley: University of California, 2011.

Morales García, A, Caridad Sebastián, M., and García López, F. “Los Telecentros Españoles: Recursos, Servicios y Propuesta De Indicadores Para Su Evaluación.” Information Research 14, no. 4 (2009). http://informationr.net/ir/14-4/paper420.html.

Morgan, Jonathan Scott, Cliff Lampe, and Muhammad Zubair Shafiq. “Is News Sharing on Twitter Ideologically Biased?” In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 887–896. CSCW  ’13. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2013. doi:10.1145/2441776.2441877.

Morozov, E. The Net Delusion: How Not to Liberate the World. London: Allen Lane, 2011.

———. The Net Delusion. The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. New York: Public Affairs, 2011.

Morris, Meaghan, and Patton, Paul, Ed., eds. Michel Foucault: Power, Truth, Strategy. “Working Papers” Collection 2. Sydney, Australia: Feral Publications, 1979.

Morton, T.A., and J.M. Duck. “Social Identity and Media Dependency in the Gay Community.” Communication Research 27, no. 4 (2000): 438–460.

Moss, Corey. “Judge Orders New Hearing for Mumia Abu-Jamal” (18). http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1451546/20011218/story.html.

Mourad, Roger. “After Foucault: A New Form of Right.” Philosophy and Social Criticism 29, no. 4 (July 2003): 451–481.

———. Postmodern Philosophical Critique and the Pursuit of Knowledge in Higher Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.

Mourtada, Racha, and Fadi Salem. “Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter.” Arab Social Media Report 1, no. 2 (May 2011).

Mudhai, Okoth Fred, Wisdom J. Tettey, and Fackson Banda, eds. African Media and the Digital Public Sphere. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Mueller, Milton, and Hans Klein. What to Do About ICANN: A Proposal for Structural Reform. Internet Governance Project, April 2005.

Mueller, Milton, Andreas Schmidt, and Brenden Kuerbis. “Internet Security and Networked Governance in International Relations.” International Studies Review 15, no. 1 (2013): 86–104. doi:10.1111/misr.12024.

Mueller, M. “Universal Service Policies as Wealth Redistribution.” Government Information Quarterly 16, no. 4 (1999): 353–358.

Mueller, Milton. Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

Mun, Seong K., and Jeanine W. Turner. “Telemedicine: Emerging E-medicine.” Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 1, no. 1 (1999): 589–610. doi:10.1146/annurev.bioeng.1.1.589.

Munoz, Jose. Cruising Utopia. New York: NYU Press, 2009.

Munslow, Alan. Narrative and History. London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007.

Murphy, Michael, and Elizabeth Ribarsky. Activities for Teaching Gender and Sexuality in the University Classroom. R&L Education, 2013.

Mustafa, Mohammed A, Laidlaw, Bruce, and Brand, Mark. Telecommunication Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa World Bank discussion paper. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1997.

Mutula, S.M. “Digital Divide and Economic Development: Case Study of Sub-Saharan Africa.” The Electronic Library 26, no. 4 (2008): 468–489.

Mve-Ondo, B. Africa: The Scientific Divide. Paris: Futuribles, 2005.

Nagel, Joane. “Ethnicity, Sexuality, and Globalization.” Theory, Culture, and Society 23, no. 2–3 (2006): 545 ff.

Nakamura, Lisa. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2007.

Nakashima, Ellen. “FBI Surveillance Tool Is Ruled Unconstitutional.” The Washington Post, March 16, 2013, sec. World. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/fbi-survillance-tool-is-ruled-unconstitutional/2013/03/15/d4796396-8db9-11e2-9f54-f3fdd70acad2_story.html.

Nealon, Jeffrey T. Foucault Beyond Foucault: Power and Its Intensifications Since 1984. Stanford: Stanford University, 2008.

———. Foucault Beyond Foucault: Power and Its Intensifications Since 1984. Stanford: Stanford University, 2008.

Negri, Antonio, and Michael Hardt. Commonwealth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2009.

———. Empire, 2001.

———. Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire, 2004.

Neubauer, John, ed. Cultural History After Foucault. Walter de Gruyter, 1999.

Newman, Saul. “Spectres of Freedom in Stirner and Foucault: A Response to Caleb Smith’s ‘Solitude and Freedom’.” Postmodern Culture 14, no. 3 (2005). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/summary/v014/14.3newman.html.

———. “Stirner and Foucault: Toward a Post-Kantian Freedom.” Postmodern Culture 13, no. 2 (2003). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/v013/13.2newman.html.

Nicholls, R. “Telecommunications Regulation and the Global Digital Divide,” 2005. http://ssrn.com/abstract=888842.

Njogu, Kimani. Media and Identity in Africa. Indiana University Press, 2009.

Noble, David. America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism. New York: Knopf, 1977.

Nola, Robett, Ed. Foucault. London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1998.

Nordquist, Joan. “Michel Foucault: A Bibliography.” Social Theory no. 27. Reference and Research Services (1992).

North, Douglass. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1990.

Northcote, Jeremy. The Paranormal and the Politics of Truth: A Sociological Perspective. Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2007.

NSRC. “Connectiviy Providers Database” (2008). http://nsrc.org/db/lookup/country.php?ISO=EG.

Nuncio, Rhoderick. “Exploring Cybercultures: Critical and Constructivist Studies on the Internet.” Asia-Pacific Social Science Review 12, no. 2 (October 4, 2013). http://www.ejournals.ph/index.php?journal=dlsu-apssr&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=6218.

O. O., Jegede, Ilori M. O., Sonibare J. A., Oluwale B. A., and Siyanbola W. O. “An Overview of Innovation Intensity in the Indigenous Oilfield Services Firms in Nigeria.” Management 2, no. 5 (December 1, 2012): 214–220. doi:10.5923/j.mm.20120205.10.

O’Donnell, James J. Avatars of the Word. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1997.

O’Farrell, Clare. “Foucault and the Foucauldians.” Economy and Society no. 11 (1982): 449–459.

O’Farrell, Clare, ed. Foucault: The Legacy. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland University of Technology, 1997.

O’Leary, Timothy, and Christopher Falzon, eds. Foucault and Philosophy. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

O’Leary, Timothy. Foucault and the Art of Ethics. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003.

O’Neil, Mathieu. “Internet Studies in Europe.” InMedia. The French Journal of Media and Media Representations in the English-Speaking World no. 2 (December 10, 2012). http://inmedia.revues.org/489.

OECD. Broadband and the Economy. Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/62/7/40781696.pdf.

———. Broadband Growth and Policies in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD, 2008.

———. Classifying Information And Communication Technology Services. Paris: OECD, 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/39/25/38226951.pdf.

———. Global Opportunities for Internet Access Developments. Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2007doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT00005BFA/$FILE/JT03239667.PDF.

———. Information Economy – Sector Definitions Based on the International Standard Industry Classification. Paris: OECD, 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/49/17/38217340.pdf.

———. Measuring Security and Trust in the Online Environment: A View Using Official Data. Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/47/18/40009578.pdf.

———. Measuring the Information Economy. Paris: OECD, 2002.

———. Measuring User-Created Content: Implications for the ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals Surveys. Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/58/40003289.pdf.

———. OECD Communications Outlook 2005. Paris: OECD, 2005.

———. OECD Communications Outlook 2007. Paris: OECD, 2007.

———. OECD Communications Outlook 2009. Paris: OECD, 2009.

———. OECD Communications Outlook 2011. Paris: OECD, 2011.

———. OECD Information Technology Outlook 2000. Paris: OECD, 2000. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/30/56/1939833.pdf.

———. OECD Information Technology Outlook 2002. Paris: OECD, 2002. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/22/38/37620159.pdf.

———. OECD Information Technology Outlook 2004. Paris: OECD, 2004. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/22/18/37620123.pdf.

———. OECD Information Technology Outlook 2006. Paris: OECD, 2006.

———. OECD Information Technology Outlook 2008. Paris: OECD, 2008.

———. OECD Information Technology Outlook 2010. Paris: OECD, 2010.

———. Participative Web and User-Created Content. Web 2.0, Wikis, and Social Networking. Paris: OECD, 2007.

———. Seizing the Benefits of ICT in a Digital Economy. Report Prepared for the Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level. Paris: OECD, 2003. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/42/2507572.pdf.

———. Shaping Policies for the Future of the Internet Economy. Report Prepared for the OECD Ministerial Meeting on the Future of the Internet Economy Taking Place in Seoul on 17-18 June.. Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/1/29/40821707.pdf.

———. The Development of Broadband Access in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD, 2001. https://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/48/33/2475737.pdf.

———. The Economic and Social Role of Internet Intermediaries. Paris: OECD, 2010. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/49/4/44949023.pdf.

———. The Economic Impact of ICT. Measurement, Evidence and Implications. Paris: OECD, 2004.

———. The Future of the Internet Economy: A Statistical Profile. Statistical Profile Prepared for the OECD Ministerial Meeting on the Future of the Internet Economy Taking Place in Seoul on 17-18 June.. Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/56/40827598.pdf.

———. The Role of Communication Infrastructure Investment in Economic Recovery. Paris: OECD, 2009. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/4/43/42799709.pdf.

———. The Role of Internet Intermediaries in Advancing Public Policy Objectives. Paris: OECD, 2011.

Oguibe, Olu. “El Anatsui.” African Arts 31, no. 1 (Winter 1998): 48.

Okpewho, Isidore, and Nkiru Nzegwu, eds. The New African Diaspora. Indiana University Press, 2009.

Oksala, Johanna. Foucault on Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2005.

Oliver, Mary Beth, Hyeseung Yang, Srividya Ramasubramanian, Jinhee Kim, and Sangki Lee. “Exploring Implications of Perceived Media Reinforcement on Third-Person Perceptions.” Communication Research 35 (2008): 745–769.

Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. “Oppression, Privilege, and Resistance: Theoretical Perspectives on Racism, Sexism, and Heterosexism.” In Racial Formation. Vol. Oppression, Privilege, and Resistance: Theoretical Perspectives on Racism, Sexism, and Heterosexism New York. McGraw Hill, 2004.

Omobowale, Ayokunle Olumuyiwa, Natewinde Sawadogo, Eveline M. F. W. Sawadodo/Compaoré, and Comfort Erima Ugbem. “Globalization and Scholarly Publishing in West Africa.” International Journal of Sociology 43, no. 1 (April 1, 2013): 8–26. doi:10.2753/IJS0020-7659430101.

Ong, Walter. Orality and Literacy. New York: Routledge, 1988.

Orlikowski, Wanda. “Using Technology and Constituting Structures.” Organization Science (2000).

Orr, Jackie. “The Militarization of Inner Space.” Critical Sociology 30, no. 2 (2004): 451–481.

Ortho. “Foucault’s Minions: Biopower as Metaphor for Knowledge Production.” Foucault’s Minions, September 16, 2007. http://foucaultsminions.blogspot.com/2007/09/biopower-as-metaphor-for-knowledge.html.

Osborne, Thomas. Aspects of Englightenment: Social Theory and the Ethics of Truth. UCL Press, 2002.

Östman, Johan, and Mats Ekström. “Information, Interaction and Creative Production : The Effects of Three Forms of Internet Use on Youth Democratic Engagement.” Communication Research (2012). http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-27194.

Oswin, Natalie. “Decentering Queer Globalization: Diffusion and the ‘Global Gay’.” Society and Space 24, no. 5 (2006): 777–790.

Ottenberg, Simon, ed. The Nsukka Artists and Nigerian Contemporary Art. Washington, DC: National Museum of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2002.

Ouellette, Laurie. “Reality TV Gives Back: On the Civic Functions of Reality Entertainment.” JPFT (2010).

L’ Ouest, Institut Panos Afrique de, Association of African Internet Service Provider Associations, and CIPACO. Development of Local Internet Traffic in West and Central Africa and Beyond: Synthesis of an E-discussion. Panos Institute West Africa, 2005.

Padilla, Mark, ed. Love and Globalization: Transformations of Intimacy in the Contemporary World. Nashville: Vanderbilt University, 2007.

Pal, J., Patra, R., Nedevschi, S., Plauche, M., and Pawar, U. ““The Case of the Occasionally Cheap Computer: Low-cost Devices and Classrooms in the Developing World.” Information Technologies and International Development 5, no. 1 (2009): 49–64.

Pambazuka. “Ghana Upholds the Spirit of pan-African Citizenship.” Accessed December 1, 2012. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/40114.

Paolillo, J., Pimienta, D., and Prado, D. Measuring Linguistic Diversity on the Internet. Paris: UNESCO, 2005. http://www.uis.unesco.org/template/pdf/cscl/MeasuringLinguisticDiversity_En.pdf.

Paras, Eric. Foucault 2.0: Beyond Power and Knowledge. New York: Random House, 2006.

———. Foucault 2.0: Beyond Power and Knowledge. New York: Random House, 2006.

Pathak, Saurav, Emanuel Xavier-Oliveira, and André O. Laplume. “Influence of Intellectual Property, Foreign Investment, and Technological Adoption on Technology Entrepreneurship.” Journal of Business Research. Accessed March 19, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.02.035.

Patton, Cindy. “White Racism/Black Signs: Censorship and Images of Race Relations.” JC 45, no. 2 (1995).

Peake, Adam. Internet Governance and WSIS. Tokyo: GLOCOM, 2004.

Pease, Donald. The New American Exceptionalism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.

Pedelty, Mark. “War Stories” (2007).

Peguera, M. (Coord.). Principios De Derecho De La Sociedad De La Información. Madrid: Aranzadi, 2010.

Peña-López, I. “Research in ICT4D: The Convergence of Social Sciences and Technology.” In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Research on ICT for Human Development. Fuenlabrada: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos & Fundacion EHAS, 2010. http://ictlogy.net/articles/20100513_ismael_pena-lopez_-_research_ict4d_convergence_social_sciences_technology.pdf.

Peña-López, I. “Jakob Nielsen’s Digital Divide: The Three Stages.” ICTlogy 41 (February 2007). http://ictlogy.net/review/?p=504.

Peña-López, I. “Ben Compaine Revisited: The Digital Divide Is Not (just) About Infrastructures.” ICTlogy 42 (March 2007). http://ictlogy.net/?p=528.

———. “Benjamin M. Compaine: Declare the War on the Digital Divide Won… or Just Don’t!” ICTlogy 42 (March 2007). http://ictlogy.net/review/?p=521.

———. Fundamentos Técnicos De La Administración Electrónica. ICTlogy Learning Materials Series #3. Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2006.

———. “Fundamentos Tecnológicos Del Derecho De La Sociedad De La Información.” Principios De Derecho De La Sociedad De La Información Capítulo 1 (2010): 51–123.

———. “Gestores Con Conocimiento.” La Vanguardia, Temas De Debate, 06/03/2011. Barcelona: Grupo Godó (2011). http://www.lavanguardia.es/opinion/temas-de-debate/20110306/54123899039/vivir-en-la-nube-digital.html?page=2.

———. “ICTlogy » ICT4D Blog » Thank You OLPC, Indeed — a Comment to Teemu Leinonen,” 2005. http://ictlogy.net/20080116-thank-you-olpc-indeed-a-comment-to-teemu-leinonen/.

———. “ICTlogy » ICTlogy, Review of ICT4D » Negroponte and the Web 2.0 or the Four Classes of the Digital Divide,” 2005. http://ictlogy.net/review/?p=316.

———. “ICTlogy » ICTlogy, Review of ICT4D » Networked Readiness Index Vs. Human Development Index,” 2006. http://ictlogy.net/review/?%20p=378.

———. “Inclusió a La Societat Xarxa: El Futur Dels Telecentres. Conferència Inaugural De La 10a Jornada Òmnia, Citilab, 26 De Novembre De 2008.” Cornellà de Llobregat: ICTlogy, 2009. http://ictlogy.net/presentations/20091126_ismael_pena-lopez_inclusio_societat_xarxa.pdf.

———. “The Internet, or How Law Became (even) More Complicated.” presented at the Seminar at the Magister Lvcentinvs on Intellectual Property, University of Alicante, May 14, 2012. http://ictlogy.net/presentations/20120514_ismael_pena-lopez_-_internet_or_how_law_became_even_more_complicated.zip.

———. “The Network Society, or How Industrial Institutions’ Feet Became of Clay.” presented at the Seminar at the Magister Lvcentinvs on Intellectual Property, University of Alicante, May 14, 2012. http://ictlogy.net/presentations/20120514_ismael_pena-lopez_-_network_society_industrial_institutions_feed_of_clay.zip.

———. “The Web 2.0, or How Individuals Became Mass Media.” presented at the Seminar at the Magister Lvcentinvs on Intellectual Property, University of Alicante, May 14, 2012. http://ictlogy.net/presentations/20120514_ismael_pena-lopez_-_web_2.0_or_how_individuals_became_mass_media.zip.

———. “Vivir En La ‘Nube’… Digital,” 2011. http://www.lavanguardia.com/opinion/temas-de-debate/20110306/54123899039/vivir-en-la-nube-digital.html?page=2.

Peng, Tai Quan, and Zhen-Zhen Wang. “Network Closure, Brokerage, and Structural Influence of Journals: a Longitudinal Study of Journal Citation Network in Internet Research (2000–2010).” Scientometrics (n.d.): 1–19. Accessed April 16, 2013. doi:10.1007/s11192-013-1012-x.

Peniel, Joseph E. The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights – Black Power Era. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Pérez, J. “WI-FI, Análisis, Diagnóstico y Políticas Públicas.” Madrid: Red.es., 2003. http://observatorio.red.es/estudios/documentos/04_02_20_wifi.pdf.

Pérez, J. (Coord.). WI-FI, Análisis, Diagnóstico y Políticas Públicas. Madrid: Red.es, 2003. http://observatorio.red.es/estudios/documentos/04_02_20_wifi.pdf.

Perry, Mark. Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage with Its Enemies. New York: Basic Books, 2010.

Petersen, Alan, Barns, Ian, Dudley, Janice, and Harris, Patricia. Poststructuralism, Citizenship and Social Policy. London: Routledge, 1999.

Petryna, Adriana. Life Exposed: Biological Citizens After Chernobyl. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 2002.

Pfaffenberger, B. “The Social Anthropology of Technology.” Annual Review of Anthropology 21 (1992): 491 – 516.

Picton, John. El Anatsui. London: October Gallery, 1998.

Pimienta, D., Prado, D., and Blanco, Á. Twelve Years of Measuring Linguistic Diversity in the Internet: Balance and Perspectives. Paris: UNESCO, 2009. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001870/187016e.pdf.

Pinto, Sarah. “Emotional Histories and Historical Emotions: Looking at the Past in Historical Novels.” Rethinking History 14, no. 2 (2010): 189–207.

Pizer, Donald. “Textual Criticism and Literary Interpretation.” In Self-Censorship and Literary Editing, Textual Criticism and Literary Interpretation Chicago:144–161. University of Chicago, 1985.

Plummer, Kenneth. Intimate Citizenship: Private Decisions and Public Dialogues. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Pogge, Thomas. Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to the Very Poor? New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai, and Carleen Maitland. “Intra-regional Diffusion of Spectrum License Allocation Policies.” Info 15, no. 4 (June 21, 2013): 2–2.

Polikanov, Dmitry, and Irina Abramova. “Africa and ICT: A Chance for Breakthrough?” Information, Communication & Society 6, no. 1 (2003): 42–56. doi:10.1080/1369118032000068778.

Pollack, Barbara. “El Anatsui, a sculptopr who starts from scrap.” Washington Post. Washington, D.C., March 23, 2008, sec. M.

Popper, Karl. The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934.

Postel, J. “Internet Protocol.” Accessed February 26, 2013. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791.html.

Poster, Marc. Foucault, Marxism, and History. New York: Polity Press, 1982. http://www.humanities.uci.edu/mposter/books/.

Poster, Mark. “The Future According to Foucault: The Archaeology of Knowledge and Intellectual History.” In Modern European Intellectual History: Reappraisals and New Perspectives, edited by Dominick LaCapr and Steven Kaplan, 137–152. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.

Poster, Mark,. “Foucault’s True Discourses.” Humanities in Society 1, no. 2 (1979): 153–166.

Poulantzas, Nikos. “Introduction and Part I.” translated by Camiller, Patrick. London: Verso, 1978.

Povinelli, Elizabeth A., and George Chauncey. “Thinking Sexuality Transnationally: An Introduction.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 5, no. 4 (1999): 439–449.

Prado, P, Câmara, M. A., and Figueiredo, M. A. “Evaluating ICT Adoption in Rural Brazil: A Quantitative Analysis of Telecenters as Agents of Social Change | Prado | The Journal of Community Informatics.” The Journal of Community Informatics 7, no. 1&2 (2011). http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/663/714.

Prepah, Joshua. Report of the Chairman of Committee 5 to the Plenary Meeting Plenary Meeting. WCIT, Dubai: International Telecommunications Union, December 11, 2012.

Puar, Jasbir Kaur. “CIRCUITS OF QUEER MOBILITY: Tourism, Travel, and Globalization.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8, no. 1–2 (2002): 101–137.

———. Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.

Punday, Daniel. “Foucault’s Body Tropes.” New Literary History 31, no. 3 (2000).

Qiu, Lili, Kamal Jain, Ranveer Chandra, and Mohammad Mahdian. “METHOD FOR DETERMINING PLACEMENT OF INTERNET TAPS IN WIRELESS NEIGHBORHOOD NETWORKS,” April 25, 2013. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2013/0100818.html.

Qureshi, Sajda. “Networks of Change, Shifting Power from Institutions to People: How Are Innovations in the Use of Information and Communication Technology Transforming Development?” Information Technology for Development 19, no. 2 (2013): 97–99. doi:10.1080/02681102.2013.789151.

Rainie, L., and B. Tancer. “Wikipedia: When in Doubt, Multitudes Seek It Out.” (n.d.). http://pewresearch.org/pubs/460/wikipedia.

Raiti, G.C. “The Lost Sheep of ICT4D Research.” Information Technologies and International Development 3, no. 4 (Summer 2006): 1–7.

Rajan, Kaushik Sunder. Biocapital: The Constitution of Postgenomic Life. Durham, NC: Duke University, 2006.

———. “Experimental Values: Indian Clinical Trials and Surplus Health.” New Left Review 45 (2007): 67–88.

Ranciere, Jacques. The Future of the Image. New York: Verso, 2007.

Raymond, E. S. The Cathedral & the Bazaar. Sebastopol: O’Reilly, 1999.

Read, Jason. “A Genealogy of Homo-Economicus: Neoliberalism and the Production of Subjectivity.” Foucault Studies no. 6 (February 2009): 25–36.

Reagen, Patrick D. History and the Internet, 2002.

red.es. “Encuesta Panel De Hogares. 21a Oleada, 3er Trimestre 2008 Julio-Septiembre,” 2009. http://www.ontsi.red.es/ontsi/hogares-ciudadanos/articles/id/3135/xxi-oleada-del-panel-hogares-julio-septiembre-2008.html.

———. Estudio Sobre Actividades Realizadas En Internet 2007. Madrid: red.es, 2008. http://observatorio.red.es/estudios/documentos/actividades_internet_2007.pdf.

———. “Las TIC En Los Hogares Españoles. Encuesta Panel 22a Oleada, IV Trimestre 2008 Octubre-Diciembre,” 2009. http://observatorio.red.es/hogares-ciudadanos/articles/id/3437/xxii-oleada-del-panel-hogares-octubre-diciembre-2008.html.

———. “Las TIC En Los Hogares Españoles. Encuesta Panel 24a Oleada, II Trimestre 2009 Abril-Junio.,” 2009. http://www.ontsi.red.es/hogares-ciudadanos/articles/id/4180/xxiv-oleada-del-panel-hogares-abril-junio-2009.html.

———. “Las TIC En Los Hogares Españoles. Encuesta Panel 25a Oleada, III Trimestre 2009 Julio-Septiembre,” 2009. http://www.ontsi.red.es/hogares-ciudadanos/articles/id/4533/xxv-oleada-del-panel-hogares-julio-septiembre-2009.html.

———. “Panel De Hogares. 18a Oleada (4o Trimestre 2007),” 2008. http://observatorio.red.es/estudios/documentos/xviii_ oleada.pdf.

———. “Perfil Sociodemográfico De Los Internautas. Análisis De Datos INE 2007,” 2008. http://observatorio.red.es/estudios/documentos/informe_completo_perfil_del_internauta.pdf.

———. “Tecnologías De La Información y Las Comunicaciones En La Microempresa Española. Edición 2010,” 2010.

———. “Tecnologías De La Información y Las Comunicaciones En Las PYMES y Grandes Empresas Españolas. Edición 2010,” 2010.

Reding, V. “Why Greece Needs Broadband and Why It Needs It Now – a European Perspective.” Speech presented at the The International Conference, Athens: European Commission, 2007. http://www.europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/355&format=PDF&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en.

Rejack, Brian. Toward a Virtual Reenactment of History: Video Games and the Recreation of the Past. Vol. 11(3), 2007.

Relly, J. E., and Cuillier, D. “A Comparison of Political, Cultural, and Economic Indicators of Access to Information in Arab and non-Arab States.” Government Information Quarterly 27, no. 4 (2010): 360–370.

Rendón, Á., Ludeña González, P. J., and Martínez Fernández, A., eds. Redes De Telecomunicación Para Zonas Rurales De Países En Desarrollo. Un Ejemplo De Aplicación Para La Mejora De La Salud. Madrid: CYTED, 2011.

Reporters Without Borders. 2006 Annual Report. Paris: Reporters Without Borders, 2006. http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/report.pdf.

———. 2007 Annual Report. Paris: Reporters Without Borders, 2007. http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/rapport_en_bd-4.pdf.

———. 2008 Annual Report. Paris: Reporters Without Borders, 2008. http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/rapport_en-3.pdf.

Rey, C., Salazar Arriola, A., and Peña-López, I. “Causas y Consecuencias De La Brecha Digital.” In Redes De Telecomunicación Para Zonas Rurales De Países En Desarrollo. Un Ejemplo De Aplicación Para La Mejora De La Salud, Capítulo 1, edited by Rendón, Á., Ludeña González, P. J., and Martínez Fernández, A., 3–10. Madrid: CYTED, 2011.

Ricci, Gabriel R. Culture and Civilization: Cosmopolitanism and the Global Polity. Transaction Publishers, 2013.

Rice, Ned. “Widow of Mumia Abu-Jamal’s Victim Tells Her Moving Story.” Human Events (10): 11, 18, 20.

Riley, Denise. “Am I That Name?”: Feminism and the Category of “Women” in History. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1988.

Rimer, Sarah. “Death Sentence Overturned in 1981 Killing of Officer.” New York Times A (19): 20.

Ritchie, G.J., and J.A. Turner. “Input Devices for Interactive Graphics.” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 7, no. 5 (September 1975): 639–660. doi:10.1016/S0020-7373(75)80024-1.

Robins, Melinda B. “Are African Women Online Just Ict Consumers?” International Communication Gazette 64, no. 3 (June 1, 2002): 235–249. doi:10.1177/17480485020640030201.

Robinson, Keith. Michel Foucault and The Freedom of Thought. Edwin Mellen Press, 2001.

De la Rocha, Zach, and et al. “Mumia 911.” Mumia 911 (1999).

Rodriguez, Dylan. “‘Social Truth’ and Imprisoned Intellectuals.” Social Justice 30 (2003): 66–80.

Rofel, Lisa. Desiring China: Experiments in Neoliberalism, Sexuality, and Public Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.

Rogers, Everett. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press, 1995.

Rollins, John. “Al-Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence, and Implications for U.S. Policy.” Congressional Research Services R41070 (27).

Rollins, John, and Catherine Theohary. “Terrorist Use of the Internet: Information Operations in Cyberspace.” Congressional Research Services R41674 (8).

Rose, K. “AfPIF: Growing Africa’s Internet Infrastructure.” IEEE Internet Computing 15, no. 6 (December 2011): 94 –96. doi:10.1109/MIC.2011.145.

Rose, Nikolas. “Questions of Cultural Identity.” In Identity, Genealogy, History, Questions of Cultural Identity London:128–150. Sage, 1996.

———. “The Value of Life.” Daedalus (Winter 2008): 36–48.

Rose, Professor Nikolas. Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. 0 ed. Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1994.

———. Hip Hop Wars: What We Talk About When We Talk About Hip Hop – And Why It Matters. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2008.

———. “Orality and Technology: Rap Music and Afro-American Cultural Resistance.” Popular Music and Society 14 (1998): 367–374.

Rose, Nikolas. Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. 2nd ed. Free Associations Books, 1999.

———. “Identity, Genealogy, History.” In In Questions of Cultural Identity, edited by Hall, Stuart and du Gay, Paul, 128–50. London: Sage, 1996.

———. Inventing Ourselves. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Rose, Nikolas S. Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Rosenbaum, Judith E., Johannes W.J. Beentjes, and Ruben P. Konig. “Mapping Media Literacy: Key Concepts and Future Directions.” Communication Yearbook 32 (2008): 312–353.

Rosenstone, Robert. History on Film/Film on History. New York: Longman, 2006.

Rosenzweig, Roy. “Can History Be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past.” The Journal of American History (June 2006): 117–146.

———. Historians and Audiences: Comment on Tristram Hunt and Geoffrey Timmins, 2006.

———. History Matters, 2004.

Rosenzweig, Roy, and Anthony Grafton. Clio Wired: The Future of the Past. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.

Rosenzweig, Roy, and David Thelen. The Presence of the Past. Columbia University Press, 2006.

Rousseau, G.S. “Foucault and the Fortunes of Queer Theory.” The European Legacy 5, no. 3 (2000): 401–413.

Rubinstein, Raphael. “Full-Metal Fabrics.” Art in America 94, no. 5 (May 2006): 158.

Ruiz de Querol, R. Análisis De La Formación De Las Políticas De Sociedad De La Información En Cataluña (1993-2003. Barcelona: Telefónica, 2006.

Rutherford, Paul. “The Problem of Nature in Contemporary Social Theory.” Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 2000.

Ryan, Patrick, and Jason Gerson. A Primer on Internet Exchange Points for Policymakers and Non-Engineers SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, August 12, 2012. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2128103.

Ryan, Y. “The Tragic Life of a Street Vendor” (2011). english.aljazeera.net/indepth/features/2011/01/201111684242518839.html.

Rymsza-Pawlowska, Malgorzata. “Frontier House: Reality Television and the Historical Experience.” Film & History: An Interdisciplinary Journal Of 37, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 35–42.

Sacco, Joe. Footnotes in Gaza. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2009.

Sassen, Saskia. “The Repositioning of Citizenship: Emergent Subjects and Spaces for Politics.” CR: The New Centennial Review 3 (2003): 41–66.

De Saussure, Ferdinand. Course in General Linguistics. London: Fontana/Collins, 1974.

Savage, Mike, Fiona Devine, Niall Cunningham, Mark Taylor, Yaojun Li, Johs Hjellbrekke, Brigitte Le Roux, Sam Friedman, and Andrew Miles. “A New Model of Social Class: Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment.” Sociology (April 2, 2013). doi:10.1177/0038038513481128.

Sayo, P., Chacko, J. G., and Pradhan, G., eds. ICT Policies and e-Strategies in the Asia-Pacific. New Delhi: APDIP, 2004. http://www.apdip.net/publications/ict4d/ict4dsayo.pdf.

Schaffer, Marvin Baker. “A Model of 21st Century Counterinsurgency Warfare.” The Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology 4, no. 3 (July 2007): 252–261.

Schech, S. “Wired for Change: The Links Between ICTs and Development Discourses.” Journal of International Development 14, no. 1 (2002): 13–23.

Schleifer, Ron. “Reconstructing Iraq: Winning the Propaganda War in Iraq.” Midde East Quarterly 12, no. 3 (Summer 2005): 15–24.

Schlesinger, Philip. “Expertise, the Academy and the Governance of Cultural Policy.” Media, Culture & Society 35, no. 1 (January 1, 2013): 27–35. doi:10.1177/0163443712464555.

Schmitt, Carl. The Concept of the Political. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2007.

Schonwetter, T, J de Beer, D Kawooya, and A Prabhala. “Copyright and Education in Africa: Lessons on African Copyright and Access to Knowledge.” The African Journal of Information and Communication 10 (2010): 37–52.

Schulz, Winfried. “Reconstructing Mediatization as an Analytical Concept.” European Journal of Communication 19 (2004): 87–101.

Schuppan, Tino. “E-Government in Developing Countries: Experiences from sub-Saharan Africa.” Government Information Quarterly 26, no. 1 (January 2009): 118–127. doi:10.1016/j.giq.2008.01.006.

Schwanen, Tim, Mei-Po Kwan, and Fang Ren. “The Internet and the Gender Division of Household Labour.” The Geographical Journal (2013): n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/geoj.12014.

Schwarz, B. “Breaking Bread with History: CLR James and The Black Jacobins Stuart Hall.” History Workshop Journal 1998, no. 46 (January 1, 1998): 17–32. doi:10.1093/hwj/1998.46.17.

Sciadas, G. International Benchmarking for the Information Society. Busan: ITU, 2004. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/digitalbridges/docs/background/BDB-intl-indices.pdf.

Sciadas, G, Lyons, H., Rothschild, C., and Sey, A. Public Access to ICTs: Sculpting the Profile of Users. Seattle: Technology & Social Change Group, University of Washington Information School, 2012. http://tascha.uw.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Global-Impact-Study-User-Profiles-Survey-Working-Paper-1.pdf.

Scott, Joan W. Gender and the Politics of History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Sen, Amartya. Development as Freedom, n.d.

Severin, E., and Capota, C. One-to-One Laptop Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean. Technical Notes No. IDB-TN-273. New York: Inter-American Development Bank, 2011.

Sey, A., and Fellows, M. “Loose Strands: Searching for Evidence of Public Access ICT on Development.” Seattle: University of Washington, 2011. http://www.globalimpactstudy.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/p189-sey.pdf.

Sey, A., and Fellows, M. Literature Review on the Impact of Public Access to Information and Communication Technologies. Seattle: University of Washington., 2009. http://cis.washington.edu/depository/publications/CIS-WorkingPaperNo6.pdf.

Shakur, Assata. “Schooling the Generations in the Politics of Prisons.” In Message to Mumia. Vol. Schooling the Generations in the Politics of Prisons Berkeley, CA. New Earth Publications, 1996.

Shantz, Jeff, and José Brendan Macdonald. Beyond Capitalism: Building Democratic Alternatives for Today and the Future. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013.

Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1996.

Shapiro, Gary. Archaeologies of Vision: Foucault and Nietzsche on Seeing and Saying. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2003.

Shirky, Clay. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. Reprint. Penguin Books, 2009.

Shumway, David R. Michel Foucault. Paperback reprint edition: Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992. Twayne’s World Authors Series: French Literature 184. Boston: Twayne Publications, 1989.

Sibisi, S. Free/Libre & Open Source Software and Open Standards in South Africa. Pretoria: National Advisory Council on Innovation, 2004.

Siemens, Ray, and Susan Schreibman. A Companion to Digital Literary Studies. Wiley, 2013.

Simmons, Beth A. “Preface: International Relationships in the Information Age.” International Studies Review 15, no. 1 (2013): 1–4. doi:10.1111/misr.12027.

Sing. “The Institutional Environment and Effects of Telecommunication Privatization and Market Liberalization in Asia.” Telecommunications Policy no. 24 (2000): 885–906.

Singh, JP. “Toward Knowledge Societies in UNESCO and Beyond.” From NWICO to WSIS (n.d.).

Sklar, Richard. “The Nature of Class Domination in Africa.” Journal of Modern African Studies 17, no. 4 (1979): 531–552.

Slate, Michael. “Rhyming in the Freedom Grove; Mumia 911 – the CD.” Revolutionary Worker Online 1005 (9). http://rwor.org/a/v21/1005-009/1005/mumiacd.htm.

Slotkin, Richard. “Fiction for the Purposes of History.” Rethinking History 9, no. 2 (2005): 221–236.

Smart, Barry. Michel Foucault. Key Sociologists Series. London and New York: Routledge, 1985.

Smart, Barry, ed. Michel Foucault I. Critical Assessments: Archaeology, Genealogy and Politics. 3 vols. Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists Series. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

———. Michel Foucault II. Critical Assessments: Rationality, Power and Subjectivity. 3 vols. Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists. London and New York: Routledge, 1995.

Smith, Bonnie G. Women’s Studies: The Basics. Routledge, 2013.

Smith, Caleb. “Solitude and Freedom: A Response to Saul Newman on Stirner and Foucault.” Postmodern Culture 14, no. 3 (2004). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/summary/v014/14.3smith.html.

Smith, A. Home Broadband 2010. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2010. http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2010/Home%20broadband%202010.pdf.

Soffer, Oren. “The Internet and National Solidarity: A Theoretical Analysis.” Communication Theory 23, no. 1 (2013): 48–66. doi:10.1111/comt.12001.

Soliman, Mounira, and Walid El Hamamsy. Popular Culture in the Middle East and North Africa: A Postcolonial Outlook. Routledge, 2013.

Sontag, Susan. Regarding the Pain of Others. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2003.

Sornamohan, V. “Telecentre Matters: Getting the Basics Right.” Information Technology in Developing Countries 22, no. 1 (February 2012). http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/egov/ifip/feb2012/vignesh-sornamohan.htm.

Sothern, M. The Globalization of Sexuality. Vol. 6 (5), 2005.

Spaiser, Viktoria. “Exploitation of Information and Communication Technologies by Insurgents.” War Studies MA (2008).

Spindel, Chad. “The People Want to Topple the Regime: Exploring the Arab Spring in Egypt, Syria, and Jordan.” SAGE Open (11): 1–7.

Spivak, Gayatri C. “Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture.” In Can the Sub-Altern Speak? Vol. Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture New York. Macmillan, 1988.

Sprinker, Michael. “The Use and Abuse of Foucault.” Humanities in Society 3, no. 1 (1980): 1–21.

———. “The Use and Abuse of Foucault.” Humanities in Society 3, no. 1 (1980): 1–21.

Sreberny, A., and G. Khiabany. Blogistan: The Internet and Politics in Iran. London: IB Tauris, 2010.

Staines, Deborah. Interrogating the War on Terror: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007.

Stenson, Kevin. “Beyond Histories of the Present, Economy and Society” 27, no. 4 (1998): 333–352.

Stern, P. A., Townsend, D., and Monedero, J. New Models for Universal Access in Latin America. Bogotá: Regulatel, 2006. http://regulatel.org/miembros/ppiaf2.htm.

Stern, P. A., Townsend, D., and Stephens, R. New Models for Universal Access to Telecommunications Services in Latin America. Bogotá: Regulatel, 2006. http://regulatel.org/miembros/publicaciones/ESTU%20DIOS/SERV%20UNIV/PPIAF/informe%20final/draft%20vf/.

Stewart, Kathleen. Ordinary Affects. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.

Stolterfoht, Britta, and Sam Featherston. Empirical Approaches to Linguistic Theory: Studies in Meaning and Structure. Walter de Gruyter, 2012.

Stork, C., and Esselaar, S. Towards an African e-Index: SME e-Access and Usage in 14 African Countries. Johannesburg: The Link Centre. Accessed March 7, 2006. http://www.researchictafrica.net/images/upload/SME_book-Web.pdf.

Stork, C., and Schmidt, J. P. Towards Evidence Based ICT Policy and Regulation: eSkills. Johannesburg: Research ICT Africa, 2009. http://www.researchictafrica.net/new/images/uploads/ria%20policy%20paper%20vol1paper3%20-%20eskills.pdf.

Strover, S., Chapman, G, and Waters, J. “Beyond Community Networking and CTCs: Access, Development and Public Policy.” Washington, DC, 2003. http://web.si.umich.edu/tprc/papers/2003/230/TIF_evaluation.pdf.

Sturken, Marita. Tangled Memories: The Vietnam War, the AIDS Epidemic, and the Politics of Remembering. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997.

———. “The Aesthetics of Absence: Rebuilding Ground Zero.” American Ethnologist 31, no. 3 (August 2004).

———. Tourists of History: Memory, Kitsch, and Consumerism from Oklahoma City to Ground Zero. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

———. Tourists of History: Memory, Kitsch, and Consumerism from Oklahoma City to Ground Zero. Durham, NC: Duke University, 2007.

Suganuma, Katsuhiko. Associative Identity Politics: Unmasking the Multi-layered Formation of Queer Male Selves in 1990s Japan. Vol. 8 (4), 2007.

Sun, S., A.M. Rubin, and P.M. Haridakis. “The Role of Motivation and Media Involvement in Explaining Internet Dependency.” Journal of Electronic Broadcast and Media 52, no. 3 (2008): 408–431.

Sun, Ye, Lijiang Shen, and Zhongdang Pan. “On the Behavioral Component of the Third-Person Effect.” Communication Research 35 (2008): 257–278.

Sutinen, E., and M. Tedre. “ICT4D: A Computer Science Perspective.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6060, no. 2010 (2010): 221–231.

Taddeo, Julie Anne, and Ken Dvorak. “The PBS Historical House Series: Where Historical Reality Succumbs to Reel Reality.” Film & History: An Interdisciplinary Journal Of 37, no. 1 (2007): 18–28.

Tal, Kalí. “African American Rhetoric(s): Interdisciplinary Perspectives.” In From Panther to Monster: Representations of Resistance from the Black Power Movement of the 1960s to the “Boyz in the Hood” and Beyond. Vol. African American Rhetoric(s): Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2004.

Tambini, D. Universal Internet Access: A Realistic View. Wilts/London: IPPR/Citizens Online, 2000. http://www.citizensonline.org.uk/site/media/documents/937_universal.pdf.

Tanke, Joseph. Foucault’s Philosophy of Art: A Genealogy of Modernity. New York: Continuum, 2009.

———. Foucault’s Philosophy of Art: A Genealogy of Modernity. New York: Continuum, 2009.

Tayebi, Ali. “‘Communihood:’ A Less Formal or More Local Form of Community in the Age of the Internet.” Journal of Urban Technology 20, no. 2 (2013): 77–91. doi:10.1080/10630732.2013.769317.

Taylor, Dianna, and Vintges, Karen, eds. Feminism and the Final Foucault. University of Illinois Press, 2004.

The World Bank. Financing Information and Communication Infrastructure Needs in the Developing World. Public and Private Roles. World Bank Working Paper No. 65. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2005. http://wbln0037.worldbank.org/domdoc%5CPRD%5COther%5CPRDDContainer.nsf/All+Documents/85256D2400766CC78525709E005A5B33/$File/financingICTreport.pdf?OpenElement.

Thompson, Ashleigh. “Disability and the Internet: Confronting a Digital Divide.” Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews 42, no. 1 (January 1, 2013): 88–89. doi:10.1177/0094306112468721p.

Thompson, E.P. The Essential E.P. Thompson. Edited by Dorothy Thompson. New York: The New Press, 2001.

Thompson, M. “ICT and Development Studies: Towards Development 2.0.” In Paper Presented to DSA Annual Conference 2007. Brighton, 2007.

Thomson, Susan, An Ansoms, and Jude Murison. Emotional and Ethical Challenges for Field Research in Africa: The Story Behind the Findings. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Tinka, Mark, Goburdhan, Nishal, O’Flaherty, Christian, Reilly, Art, and Woodcock, Bill. “Internet Topology and Terminology.” n.d.

Tofts, Darren. “Cinq Minutes: Intimations of Imminent Virtuality.” Australian Journal of Virtual Art 1, no. 1 (2011).

Toutain, Laurent, and Ana Minaburo. Local Networks and the Internet: From Protocols to Interconnection. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

Tranos, Emmanouil. The Geography of the Internet: Cities, Regions and Internet Infrastructure in Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013.

Tremain, Shelley. Foucault and the Government of Disability. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2005.

Trinkle, Dennis A., and Scott A. Merriman. The History Highway: A 21st Century Guide to Internet Resources, 2006.

Triplett, J. E. “The Solow Productivity Paradox: What Do Computers Do to Productivity?” Canadian Journal of Economics 32, no. 2 (1999): 309–34.

Turkle, Sherry. Alone Together, n.d.

Turlea, G., Lindmark, S., Picci, L., de Panizza, A, Ulbrich, M., Desruelle, P., Bogdanowicz, M., and Broster, D. The 2009 Report on R&D in ICT in the European Union. Brussels: European Commission, 2009. http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC49951.pdf.

Turner, Fred. Echoes of Combat: The Vietnam War in American Memory. New York: Anchor Books, 1996.

Ulrichsen, K., D. Held, and A. Brahimi. “The Arab 1989?” Open Democracy (2011).

Umoja, Akinyele Omowale. “Liberation, Imagination, and the Black Panther Party.” In Repression Breeds Resistance: The Black Liberation Army and the Radical Legacy of the Black Panther Party. Vol. Liberation, Imagination, and the Black Panther Party New York. Routledge, 2001.

UNCTAD. ICT Development Indices 2003. New York and Geneva: UNCTAD, 2003. http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/iteipc20031_en.pdf.

———. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Development Indices. New York and Geneva: UNCTAD, 2002. http://stdev.unctad.org/un/paper3.pdf.

———. Panel on Indicators of Technology Development. Summary Report.. New York and Geneva: UNCTAD, 2002. http://stdev.unctad.org/un/p1report.doc.

———. The Digital Divide Report: ICT Diffusion Index 2005. New York and Geneva: UNCTAD, 2006. http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/iteipc20065_en.pdf.

———. The Digital Divide: ICT Development Indices 2004. New York and Geneva: UNCTAD, 2005. http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Download.asp? docid=5878&lang=1&intItemID=2068.

Universal McCann. Wave 3. New York: Universal McCann, 2008. http://www.universalmccann.com/Assets/2413%20-%20Wave%203%20complete%20document%20AW%203_20080418124523.pdf.

———. Wave 4. New York: Universal McCann, 2009. http://universalmccann.bitecp.com/wave4/Wave4.pdf.

Unwin, T. “On the Richness of Africa.” Egham: ICT4D Collective, 2008. http://www.gg.rhul.ac.uk/ict4d/workingpapers/richness.pdf.

———. “Partnerships in ICT for Education Activities in Africa.” LearnTec, 2004. gg.rhul.ac.uk.

———. “Torwards a Framework for the Use of ICT in Teacher Training in Africa.” Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Education 20, no. 2 (2005): 113–129.

———. ICT4D: Information and Communication Technology for Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Urgell, F., Aibar, E., and Welp, Y. “Serveis Públics En Línia i Organització De l’Administració: Un Estudi De Cas Sobre Governança Electrònica.” Coneixement i Societat: Revista d’Universitats, Recerca i Societat De La Informació 7 (2005): 82–71.

USA, IBP, and USA International Business Publications. Africa Telecom and Internet Business Opportunities Handbook. Int’l Business Publications, 2005.

Väätäjä, Heli K., and Emilia K. Pesonen. “Ethical Issues and Guidelines When Conducting HCI Studies with Animals.” In CHI  ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2159–2168. CHI EA  ’13. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2013. doi:10.1145/2468356.2468736.

Valiente, Ó. 1-1 in Education. Current Practice, International Comparative Research Evidence and Policy Implications. Paris: OECD, 2010. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/1-1-in-education_5kmjzwfl9vr2.pdf;jsessionid=15jeenmtmv4bj.delta?contentType=/ns/WorkingPaper&itemId=/content/workingpaper/5kmjzwfl9vr2-en&containerItemId=/content/workingpaperseries/19939019&accessItemIds=&mimeType=applicatio.

Vandebosch, Heidi. “Research Note: A Captive Audience? The Media Use of Prisoners.” European Journal of Communication 15 (2000): 529–544.

Virilio, Paul. War and Cinema. London: Verso, 1989.

Volti, Rudi. Orientations, n.d.

Voss, J. “Measuring Wikipedia.” The International Conference of the International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics 10 (24). http://hdl.handle.net/10760/6207 ER -.

Vranes, S, Lodolo, A., and Miertus, S. “Information Technology for Cleaner Water.” Edited by Hamza, M. Applied Simulation and Modelling, Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference 2004. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference 2004. (2004). http://www.ics.trieste.it/Documents/Downloads/df2242.pdf.

Wagner, Wolfgang, Nicole Kronberger, Motohiko Nagata, Ragini Sen, Peter Holtz, and Fátima Flores Palacios. “Essentialist Theory of ‘hybrids’: From Animal Kinds to Ethnic Categories and Race.” Asian Journal of Social Psychology 13, no. 4 (2010): 232–246. doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2010.01315.x.

Wallace, Maurice O. Constructing the Black Masculine: Identity and Ideality in African American Men’s Literature and Culture, 1775-1995. Durham, N: Duke University Press, 2002.

Wallace, Michele. “Dark Designs and Visual Culture” (20004).

Ward, Stephen J. A. Global Media Ethics: Problems and Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

Warden, Rob. “The Revolutionary Role of Journalism in Identifying and Rectifying Wrongful Convictions.” University of Missouri – Kansas City Law Review 70 (2002): 803–846.

Warnock, K, and R Wickremasinghe, eds. Information and Communication Technolgies and Large-scale Poverty Reduction: Lessons from Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. London: Panos London, 2005.

Watson, P. Ideas: A History from Fire to Freud. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005.

Weber, Cynthia. Imagining America at War: Morality, Politics, and Film. London: Routledge, 2006.

Webster, Andrew. Science, Technology and Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, 1991.

Weeks, Jeffrey. “Foucault for Historians.” History Workshop 14 (1982): 106–119.

———. “Remembering Foucault.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 14, no. 1–2 (2005): 186–201.

———. “Foucault for Historians.” History Workshop 14 (1982): 106–19.

Weiser, P. J. W. “The Future of Internet Regulation by Phil Weiser :: SSRN,” 2009. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1344757.

Wellman, B. “The Three Ages of Internet Studies: Ten, Five and Zero Years Ago.” New Media & Society 6, no. 1 (2004): 123–129.

Wesling, Meg. “Why Queer Diaspora?” Feminist Review 90 (2008): 30–47.

West, Michael O. The Rise of an African Middle Class: Colonial Zimbabwe, 1898-1965. Indiana University Press, 2002.

West, Michael O., William G. Martin, and Fanon Che Wilkins, eds. From Toussaint to Tupac: The Black International Since the Age of Revolution. The University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

White, Hayden. “Introduction: Historical Fiction, Fictional History, and Historical Reality.” Rethinking History 9, no. 2 (2005): 147–157.

White Stephen K. “Foucault’s Challenge to Critical Theory.” American Political Science Review no. 80 (June 1986): 419–432.

White, Hayden. “Foucault Decoded: Notes from Underground.” History and Theory no. 12 (1973): 23–54.

———. “Michel Foucault.” In In Structuralism and Since: From Levi-Strauss to Derrida, edited by Sturrock, John, 81–115. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

———. “Power and the Word.” Canto no. 2 (Spring 1978): 164–172.

Wikipedia. HISTORY. PediaPress, 31.

Wikle, Thomas A., and Jonathan C. Comer. “Facebook’s Rise to the Top.” International Journal of Virtual Communities and Social Networking 4, no. 2 (32 2012): 46–60. doi:10.4018/jvcsn.2012040104.

Wilkin, Holley A. “Exploring the Potential of Communication Infrastructure Theory for Informing Efforts to Reduce Health Disparities.” Journal of Communication (2013): n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/jcom.12006.

Williams, Raymond. Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Williams, M. Broadband for Africa: Policy for Promoting the Development of Backbone Networks. Washington, DC: infoDev, 2008. http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.526.aspx.

Wilson, Ara. Sexual Latitudes: The Erotic Life of Globalization.

Wilson III, E.J., and Wong, K.R., eds. Negotiating the Net: The Politics of Internet Diffusion in Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2006.

Wilson, M. “Understanding the International ICT and Development Discourse: Assumptions and Implications.” The African Journal of Information and Communication 3 (2002). http://link.wits.ac.za/journal/j0301-merridy-fin.pdf.

Winner, Langdon. “Do Artifacts Have Politics?” Daedalus 109, no. 1 (Winter 1980): 121–136.

Wolfe, Carey. What Is Posthumanism? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2010.

Wolin, Richard. “Foucault’s Aesthetic Decisionism.” Telos no. 67 (1986): 71–86.

———. “Michel Foucault and the Search for the Other of Reason.” In In The Terms of Cultural Criticism: The Frankfurt School, Existentialism, Poststrucuralism, 170–193. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.

World Bank. “Information & Communications Technologies.” Accessed December 14, 2012. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTINFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONANDTECHNOLOGIES/0,,menuPK:282828~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:282823,00.html.

Wu, T. “Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination.” Journal of Telecommunications and High Technology Law 2 (2003): 141–176.

Wyche, Susan P., and Marshini Chetty. “‘I Want to Imagine How That Place Looks’: Designing Technologies to Support Connectivity Between Africans Living Abroad and Home.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2755–2764. CHI  ’13. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2013. doi:10.1145/2470654.2481381.

X, Malcom. The Autobiography of Malcom X, as Told to Alex Haley. New York: Ballantine, 1987.

Ya’u, Y.Z. “The New Imperialism and Africa in the Global Electronic Village.” Review of African Political Economy 31, no. 99 (2004): 11–29.

Yates, D. J., Gulati, G. J., and Tawileh, A. “Different Paths to Broadband Access: The Impact of Governance and Policy on Broadband Diffusion in the Developed and Developing Worlds.” Kauai: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2011.

———. “Explaining the Global Digital Divide: The Impact of Public Policy Initiatives on Digital Opportunity and ICT Development.” Kauai: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2010.

Yates, D. J., Gulati, G. J., and Weiss, J. W. “Towards Universal Broadband. Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability.” Edited by Alexander, T., Turpin, M., and van Deventer, J. ECIS 2010 Conference Proceedings. 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). Accessed February 23, 2010. http://web.up.ac.za/ecis/ECIS2010PR/ECIS2010/Content/Papers/0443.pdf.

Yesil, Bilge. “Watching Ourselves.” Cultural Studies 20, no. 4 (2006): 400–416.

Yoneyama, Lisa. Hiroshima Traces: Time, Space, and the Dialectics of Memory. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.

Young, Louis C., ed. Contemporary African Artists. New York: The Studio Museum, 1990.

Young, Sean D., Greg Szekeres, and Thomas Coates. “The Relationship Between Online Social Networking and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM).” PLoS ONE 8, no. 5 (May 1, 2013): e62271. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062271.

Young, Crawford. The Post-Colonial State in Africa: A Half-Century of Independence. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 2012.

Yu, Lixiu, and Jeffrey V. Nickerson. “An Internet-scale Idea Generation System.” ACM Trans. Interact. Intell. Syst. 3, no. 1 (April 2013): 2:1–2:24. doi:10.1145/2448116.2448118.

Yun, P’yong-jung. Rationality and Social Criticism: Habermas, Foucault, and Beyond. Chuncheon, Korea: Kangweon National University Press, 1989.

Yusoff, A.Y. “ICT For Development (ICT4D), Understanding ICT4D Thematics in Malaysia: A Sourcebook” UNDP. Kuala Lumpur, 2003. http://www.undp.org.my/uploads/ict4d.pdf.

Yvette, Taylor. “The Globalization of Sexuality.” Sociology – the Journal of the British Sociological Association 40, no. 3 (2006): 586–588.

Yzer, M.C., and B.G. Southwell. “New Communication Technologies, Old Questions.” American Behavioral Scientist 52 (2008): 8–20.

Zakon, R. H. “Hobbes’ Internet Timeline – the Definitive ARPAnet & Internet History,” 2006. http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/.

Zalloua, Zahi Anbra. “Foucault as Educator: The Question of Technology and Learning How to Read Differently.” Symploke 12, no. 1–2 (2004): 232–247.

———. “Foucault as Educator: The Question of Technology and Learning How to Read Differently.” Symploke 12, no. 1–2 (2004): 232–47.

Zanello, G. “Strengthening Citizen Agency Through ICT: An Extrapolation for Eastern Africa.” Public Management Review 13, no. 3 (2009): 363–382.

Zarsky, T. Z. “Thinking Outside the Box: Considering Transparency, Anonymity, and Pseudonymity as Overall Solutions to the Problems of Information Privacy in the Internet Society.” University of Miami Law Review 58, no. 4 (2004): 1301–1354.

Zelizer, Barbie. About to Die: How News Images Move the Public. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Zelizer, Barbie, and Stuart Allen, eds. Journalism After September 11. London: Routledge, 2002.

Zgrzywa, Aleksander, Kazimierz Choroś, and Andrzej Siemiński. Multimedia and Internet Systems: Theory and Practice. Springer, 2013.

Zheng, Y, and B.C. Stahl. “Capabilities, Critique and ICTD. Poster for the International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development.” Poster presented at the ICTD2010, London, December 13, 2010.

Zickurh, Kathryn, and Lee Rainie. Wikipedia, Past and Present. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center: Internet and American Life Project, 2011.

Zimmermann, H. “OSI Reference Model–The ISO Model of Architecture for Open Systems Interconnection.” IEEE Transactions on Communications 28, no. 4 (1980): 425–432. doi:10.1109/TCOM.1980.1094702.

Zittrain, J. The Future of the Internet – and How to Stop It. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.

Zittrain, J. “The Generative Internet.” Harvard Law Review 119, no. 7 (2006): 1974–2040.

Zittrain, J., and Palfrey, J. G. “Internet Filtering: The Politics and Mechanisms of Control.” In Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, edited by Deibert, R. J., Palfrey, J. G., Rohozinski, R., and Zittrain, J. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

———. “Reluctant Gatekeepers: Corporate Ethics on a Filtered Internet.” In Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, edited by Deibert, R. J., Palfrey, J. G., Rohozinski, R., and Zittrain, J. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

Zizek, Slavoj. Parallax View. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2006.

Zuckerman, Ethan. “…My Heart’s in Accra » The Connection Between Cute Cats and Web Censorship.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2007/07/16/the-connection-between-cute-cats-and-web-censorship/.

———. “Incremental Infrastructure, or How Mobile Phones Might Wire Africa” Blog. My Heart’s In Accra, 2007. http://www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2007/07/02/incremental-infrastructure-or-how-mobile-phones-might-wire-africa/.

Zuckerman, Ethan, and Andrew McLaughlin. “Introduction to Internet Architecture and Institutions” (2003). http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/digitaldemocracy/internetarchitecture.html.

אני. “The Cultural Studies Reader: Louis Althusser: On Ideology: Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses – Summary, Review and Notes.” The Cultural Studies Reader, August 28, 2011. http://culturalstudiesnow.blogspot.com/2011/08/louis-althusser-on-ideology-ideology.html.

———. “The Cultural Studies Reader: Roland Barthes – Myth Today – Summary, Review and Analysis – Part 2.” The Cultural Studies Reader, April 7, 2012. http://culturalstudiesnow.blogspot.com/2012/04/roland-barthes-myth-today-summary_07.html.

“A Long Range Dependent Internet Traffic Model Using Unbounded Johnson Distribution.” Accessed January 6, 2013. http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e96-b_1_301.

Abu-Jamal v. Horn, 019014p (2008).

Abu-Jamal v. Price, 981947p (PADC 1998).

“Administration and Cost of Elections,” n.d. http://www.aceproject.org/.

“AfNOG Home Page.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.afnog.org/.

“Africa Action,” n.d. http://www.africaaction.org/index.php.

“Africa Business Information Services,” n.d. http://www.afbis.com/.

“Africa Confidential,” n.d. http://www.africa-confidential.com/.

“Africa Focus,” n.d. http://www.africafocus.org/.

“Africa Governance Initiative,” n.d. africagovernance.org.

“Africa ICT Policy Monitor,” n.d. http://africa.rights.apc.org/workshop.shtml.

“Africa Internet Usage, Facebook and Population Statistics.” Accessed December 17, 2012. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats1.htm.

“Africa Leadership Forum,” n.d. africaleadership.org.

“Africa Leadership Institute,” n.d. aflia.org.

“Africa Policy Journal,” n.d. http://www.africapolicyjournal.com/.

“Africa Progress Panel,” n.d. http://www.africaprogresspanel.org/.

“Africa Research Institute,” n.d. africaresearchinstitute.org.

“Africa: Internet Exchange Points, Data Centers, Data Architecture.” The Habari Network. Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.thehabarinetwork.com/africa-future-data-architecture-beginning-to-fall-into-place-%e2%80%93-internet-exchange-points-and-data-centers.

Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones. London: Vodafone, 2006. http://www.vodafone.com/assets/files/en/AIMP_09032005.pdf.

“Africa: Twelve Countries Rank in Top 75 on Anti-Corruption Index.” allAfrica.com, December 6, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201212060924.html?aa_source=useful-column.

“Africa’s Future Data Architecture Beginning to Fall into Place – Exchange Points and Data Centres | Balancingact-africa.com.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.balancingact-africa.com/news/en/issue-no-625/top-story/africa-s-future-data/en.

“Africa’s Internet Exchange Points Score Well on Lowering Latency and Local Download Speed but Did Not Contribute to Lowering of End-user Costs, Says New Study | Balancingact-africa.com.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.balancingact-africa.com/news/en/issue-no-474/top-story/africa-s-internet-ex/en.

“African Administrative Studies,” n.d. http://www.cafrad.org/.

“African Anarchism,” n.d. http://www.struggle.ws/africa.html.

“African and Asian Studies,” n.d. http://www.brill.nl/m_catalogue_sub6_id10254.htm.

“African Arguments – Social Science Research Council and the Royal African Society,” n.d. africanarguments.org.

“African Association of Political Science,” n.d. apsanet.org.

“African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies,” n.d. acdhrs.org.

“African Democracy Forum,” n.d. africandemocracyforum.org.

“African Elections Database,” n.d. http://africanelections.tripod.com/.

“African Elections Project,” n.d. http://www.africanelections.org/.

“African Geopolitics,” n.d. african-geopolitics.org.

“African Human Security Initiative,” n.d. africanreview.org.

“African ICT Week (AICTW) Concept Paper | African Union.” Accessed December 13, 2012.

“African Leadership and Progress Network,” n.d. http://www.africanprogress.net/.

“African Peace Information Locator,” n.d. http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/ceras/locator/.

“African Philosophy Resources.” Accessed December 17, 2012. http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~janzb/afphil/.

“African Politics Web Archive,” n.d. http://webarchives.cdlib.org/a/AfricaWebArchive.

“African Power Explained: An Analysis of Africa’s Dismissal as a World Power.” The African File. Accessed December 10, 2012. http://theafricanfile.com/public-diplomacy/international-relations/african-power-explained-an-analysis-of-africas-dismissal-as-a-world-power/.

“African Studies Quarterly – Human Rights and Governance in Africa,” n.d. http://web.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v2/v2i3.htm.

“African Telecoms and Internet Markets – Part 1: West Africa (Nov. 2007) | Balancingact-africa.com.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.balancingact-africa.com/reports/telecoms-and-interne/african-telecoms-and-0.

“African Voices: A Newsletter on Democracy and Governance in Africa,” n.d. http://www.usaid.gov/regions/afr/abic/avindex.htm.

Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas, 1999.

“AfricAvenir,” n.d. http://www.africavenir.com/.

“Africities,” n.d. http://www.africities.org/.

“AfriMap – Africa Governance,” n.d. http://www.afrimap.org/.

“AFRINIC – Welcome.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.afrinic.net/.

“AfriNIC | AfriNIC Resource Policies Page.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www2.afrinic.net/policy.htm.

“AfriNIC Government Working Group.” Accessed December 17, 2012. http://meeting.afrinic.net/afgwg/.

“Afripol, Africa Political and Economic Strategic Center,” n.d. afripol.org.

“Afrographique.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://afrographique.tumblr.com/.

“An Economic Development Model for IT in Developing Countries.” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries 28, no. 7 (2006): 1–9.

“An Open Letter From Internet Engineers to the U.S. Congress | Electronic Frontier Foundation.” Accessed December 13, 2012. https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2011/12/internet-inventors-warn-against-sopa-and-pipa.

“An Overview of the Internet for African Policy Makers | Internet Society.” Internet Society, 2012. http://www.internetsociety.org/overview-internet-african-policy-makers.

“APNIC – IXP Address Assignment – FAQs.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.apnic.net/services/services-apnic-provides/helpdesk/faqs/ixp-address-assignment—faqs.

Appleseed.Designer – Computer, 2012. http://vimeo.com/44756918.

“Are You a Psychopath? – Statwing Blog.” Statwing Blog. Accessed May 4, 2013. http://blog.statwing.com/are-you-a-psychopath/.

“Ares – Instant Download – Latest Version 3.21.3003.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://aresvista.com/.

“Art & Architecture Thesaurus (Getty Research Institute).” Accessed April 11, 2013. http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/aat/index.html.

“Association of Internet Researchers.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://aoir.org/.

“ATU-UAT.” Accessed December 17, 2012. http://www.atu-uat.org/.

Being Up-To-Date: Foucault, Sartre, and Postmodernity. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

“Benin – Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband – BuddeComm – BuddeComm.” Accessed December 17, 2012. https://www.budde.com.au/Research/Benin-Telecoms-Mobile-and-Broadband.html?r=51.

“Berkeley Center for the Information Society.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www1.icsi.berkeley.edu/BCIS/.

“Bing Video: Police Widow’s Fight for Justice” (n.d.). http://www.bing.com/videos/watch/video/police-widow-s-fight-for-justice/6ovls4j.

“Black Power: Music for Change” (2004).

“Book Reviews: Inclusion and Democracy.” Accessed March 22, 2013. http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/CONS/R_1351_0487_037_1004558.asp.

“Broadband Growth and Policies in OECD Countries.” Paris: OECD, 2008.

“CIA – The World Factbook.” Accessed December 17, 2012. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bn.html.

“Code of Ethics — Association for Computing Machinery.” Accessed May 4, 2013. http://www.acm.org/about/code-of-ethics.

Commonwealth v. Abu-Jamal, 521 PA 188 (1989).

“Communications of the ACM.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://cacm.acm.org/.

“Comparison Study of Free/Open Source and Proprietary Software in an African Context.” Bridges.org, 2005.

“Connecting Africa: ICT Infrastructure Across the Continent.” World Bank, 2010.

“Cornell Law Review.” Ithaca: Cornell University, n.d. http://www.lawschool.cornell.edu/research/cornell-law-review.

“Country – Benin – Regulatory Snapshot – International Telecommunication Union – BDT.” Accessed December 14, 2012. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/icteye/Regulators/CountryProfile.aspx?countryId=31.

“Country – Cote DIvoire- Regulatory Snapshot – International Telecommunication Union – BDT.” Accessed December 14, 2012. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/icteye/Regulators/CountryProfile.aspx?countryId=61.

“Country – Ghana – Regulatory Snapshot – International Telecommunication Union – BDT.” Accessed December 14, 2012. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/icteye/Regulators/CountryProfile.aspx?countryId=90.

“Country – Nigeria – Regulatory Snapshot – International Telecommunication Union – BDT.” Accessed December 14, 2012. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/icteye/Regulators/CountryProfile.aspx?countryId=167.

“Country – Togo – Regulatory Snapshot – International Telecommunication Union – BDT.” Accessed December 14, 2012. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/icteye/Regulators/CountryProfile.aspx?countryId=228.

“Critical Theory.” Accessed March 20, 2013. http://people.ucalgary.ca/~rseiler/critical.htm.

Current Anthropology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, n.d.

“Cyberethics.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://cyberethics.cbi.msstate.edu/.

“Data & Numbers – oAfrica.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.oafrica.com/data/.

“Database of African Theses and Dissertations (DATAD) | Association of African Universities.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.aau.org/?q=datad.

“December Communications, Inc. December.com.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.december.com/.

“Dependency Theory” (n.d.): 1–3.

“Derrida’s Deconstruction Of Authority.” Accessed December 10, 2012. http://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/saul-newman-derrida-s-deconstruction-of-authority?print.

“Development Informatics: Working Papers – IDPM Working Papaers (School of Environment and Development – The University of Manchester).” Accessed December 5, 2012. http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/research/publications/wp/di/index.htm.

“Digital Divide: The Three Stages (Jakob Nielsen’s Alertbox).” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/digital-divide.html.

“Digital World Research Centre – University of Surrey – Guildford.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.dwrc.surrey.ac.uk/.

“Digithum.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://digithum.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/digithum/.

Dred Scott v. Sanford, 19 U.S. 393 (1857).

“DrPeering Internet Peering Ecosystem Definition.” Accessed April 10, 2013. http://drpeering.net/white-papers/Ecosystems/Internet-Peering-Ecosystem.html.

“E-Commerce Times: E-Business Means Business.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.ecommercetimes.com/.

“Economic Manuscripts: Capital: Volume One.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/index.htm.

“Economic Manuscripts: Grundrisse – Introduction.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1857/grundrisse/.

“ECOSOCC | African Union.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.au.int/pages/ECOSOCC.

“El Anatsui” Portfolio. El Anatsui, n.d. http://www.elanatsui.com.

“Elections Canada On-line – Élections Canada En Ligne.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.elections.ca/.

“ElectionWorld | Everything About Global Politics.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://electionworld.org/.

“Elsevier Editorial SystemTM.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://ees.elsevier.com/jtpo/.

“EPIC – Electronic Privacy Information Center.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://epic.org/.

“Ernest J. Wilson.” Accessed December 16, 2012. http://www.ernestjwilson.com/.

“Federal Communications Law Journal.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/index.shtml.

Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972).

Gayatri Spivak: The Trajectory of the Subaltern in My Work, 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ZHH4ALRFHw&feature=youtube_gdata_player.

“Get reCAPTCHA.” Accessed March 18, 2013. http://www.google.com/recaptcha/whyrecaptcha.

“Ghana Internet eXchange Association.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.gixa.org.gh/.

“Ghana Internet eXchange Association » Documents.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.gixa.org.gh/?page_id=15.

“Ghana Internet eXchange Association » Traffic Graph.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.gixa.org.gh/trafficgraph.html.

“Gilles Deleuze (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).” Accessed March 22, 2013. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/deleuze/.

Global Issues and Ethical Concerns in Human Enhancement Technologies. Accessed February 12, 2013. http://www.academia.edu/2259772/Global_Issues_and_Ethical_Concerns_in_Human_Enhancement_Technologies.

“Global Opportunities for Internet Access Developments.” Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2007doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT00005BFA/$FILE/JT03239667.PDF.

“Google Image Result for Http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/0220280303001.png.” Accessed February 7, 2013. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/0220280303001.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid%3D1603048%26show%3Dhtml&h=1038&w=1400&sz=49&tbnid=vw0YOkRR-2EZBM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=121&zoom=1&usg=__F8TCAXINEvj54T3z88UDNUb_oPA=&docid=j9WBrH8iO5ZLzM&sa=X&ei=9g4UUdyGPKKZ0QGJ04CwCw&ved=0CGUQ9QEwBg&dur=300.

“Governance.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.nixp.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4&Itemid=4.

“Government Information Quarterly – Journal – Elsevier.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.journals.elsevier.com/government-information-quarterly/.

“Governments on the WWW: Table of Contents.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.gksoft.com/govt/en/.

Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Urban Economies. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013.

“Harvard Business Review.” Cambridge: Harvard University, n.d.

“Harvard Journal of Law & Technology.” Cambridge: Harvard University, n.d. http://jolt.law.harvard.edu/.

“Harvard Law Review.” Cambridge: Harvard University, n.d. http://www.harvardlawreview.org/.

“Hegel’s Lectures on the Philosophy of History.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/works/hi/history3.htm.

“High Court Dismisses Ruling on Abu-Jamal Death Sentence – CNN.com” (n.d.). http://edition.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/01/19/scotus.abu.jamal/.

“History Commons” (n.d.). historycommons.org.

“Home Page in Oxford Art Online.” Accessed April 11, 2013. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/public/;jsessionid=B80CF37E05FCDEC3F5C4D1BAF044AB85.

Host Distributions by Top-Level Domain Name (by Name) ISC DNS Survey Report. Current Data. ISC, July 2012. http://ftp.isc.org/www/survey/reports/current/byname.txt.

“Http://www.crossingboundaries.ca/,” n.d. http://www.crossingboundaries.ca/.

“Huge Wikileaks Release Shows US ‘Ignored Iraq Torture’.” BBC News (23). bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-11611319.

“Icade.” Madrid: Universidad Pontificia Comillas, n.d. http://www.upcomillas.es/servicios/serv_revi_pres.aspx.

ICANN and Internet Governance: Getting Back to Basics. Washington, DC: Center for Democracy and Technology, July 2004. http://www.cdt.org.

“ICANN Watch,” n.d. http://www.icannwatch.org.

ICANN, Legitimacy, and the Public Voice: Making Global Participation and Representation Work NGO and Academic ICANN Study (NAIS) Report, August 2001.

“ICT Infrastructure Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Analysis of Six West African Countries from 1995 to 2002 | Bollou | The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.ejisdc.org/Ojs2/index.php/ejisdc/article/view/275.

“ICTlogy » ICTlogy, Review of ICT4D » ICTs, Development, Disciplines and Acronyms.” Accessed April 1, 2013. http://ictlogy.net/review/?p=2660.

“Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses by Louis Althusser 1969-70.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/althusser/1970/ideology.htm.

“IEEE – IEEE Code of Ethics.” Accessed May 4, 2013. http://www.ieee.org/about/corporate/governance/p7-8.html.

“In Theory Giorgio Agamben: The State and the Concentration Camp.” Ceasefire Magazine. Accessed February 12, 2013. http://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/in-theory-giorgio-agamben-the-state-and-the-concentration-camp/.

“InfoMerchant – Merchant Account Services, Credit Card Processing, Check Services (Help, Tutorials, Guides, FAQ and Advice).” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.infomerchant.net/.

“Information Development.” Accessed April 16, 2013. http://m.idv.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/03/08/0266666913477879.abstract.

“International Journal of Cultural Studies.” Accessed March 16, 2013. http://m.ics.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/03/08/1367877912474547.abstract.

“International Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.cisjournal.org/.

“International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs).” ITU. Accessed December 10, 2012. http://www.itu.int/en/wcit-12/Pages/itrs.aspx.

“Internet Access for Development.” Paris: OECD, 2009.

“Internet Architecture Board.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.iab.org/.

“Internet Census 2012.” Accessed March 20, 2013. http://internetcensus2012.bitbucket.org/paper.html.

“Internet Development in Africa: The Case of Cameroon.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.isoc.org/inet97/proceedings/E4/E4_1.HTM.

“Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.ietf.org/.

“Internet Exchange Point of Nigeria.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.nixp.net/.

“Internet Governance Project,” n.d. http://www.internetgovernance.org.

“Internet in Africa.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, January 15, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Internet_in_Africa&oldid=533209797.

“Internet in Benin Statistics.” Accessed December 17, 2012. http://www.nationmaster.com/country/bn-benin/int-internet.

“Internet Plan Will Hamstring African Growth.” Business Day Live. Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.bdlive.co.za/opinion/2012/10/01/internet-plan-will-hamstring-african-growth.

“Internet Society I Internet Issues, Technology, Standards, Policy, Leadership.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.internetsociety.org/.

“Internet Studies.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVLPages/QltyPages/NetStudies.html.

“InterNIC | The Internet’s Network Information Center.” Accessed April 2, 2013. http://www.internic.net/.

“IPCT-J.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/.

“IPDI.org – Maintenance Mode.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.ipdi.org/.

“Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan” (n.d.). shahamat-english.com.

“ITU – World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT-12)  – Plenary Meeting – Document DT/55-E- International Telecommunications Regulations.” World Conference on International Communications, December 13, 2012.

“ITU in Africa.” ITU. Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Regional-Presence/Africa/Pages/default.aspx.

“ITU: Committed to Connecting the World.” ITU. Accessed March 10, 2013. http://www.itu.int/en/Pages/default.aspx.

“Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/.

“Journal of Electronic Commerce.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.csulb.edu/web/journals/jecr/.

“Journal of Information Technology.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jit/index.html.

“Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law (JTHTL) – Home.” Accessed December 10, 2012. http://www.jthtl.org/.

“KIHC | The Kleinrock Internet History Center at UCLA.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://internethistory.ucla.edu/.

“Lawrence Lessig on the Increasing Regulation of Cyberspace | Harvard Magazine Jan-Feb 2000.” Accessed March 19, 2013. http://harvardmagazine.com/2000/01/code-is-law-html.

“Links – Resources – Centre for Development Informatics (The University of Manchester).” Accessed December 5, 2012. http://www.cdi.manchester.ac.uk/resources/links/index.htm.

“Looking Back: Africa ONE (intended to Be Africa’s First Fibre Ring).” oAfrica. Accessed December 14, 2012. http://www.oafrica.com/broadband/looking-back-africa-one-intended-as-africas-first-fibre-ring/.

“Marxists Internet Archive.” Accessed December 1, 2012. http://marxists.org/.

McClesky v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279 (1987).

“Measuring Security and Trust in the Online Environment: A View Using Official Data.” Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/47/18/40009578.pdf.

“Measuring User-Created Content: Implications for the ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals Surveys.” Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/58/40003289.pdf.

“Memorandum of Understanding.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.nixp.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=25%3Amemorandum-of-understanding&catid=2&Itemid=6.

Miller v. California, 415 U.S. 279 (1987).

“Mosaic, Tecnologías y Comunicación Multimedia.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://mosaic.uoc.edu/.

“Multilingualism on the Internet.” Accessed January 10, 2013. http://www.academia.edu/613308/Multilingualism_on_the_Internet.

“n n e n n a . o r g.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.nnenna.org/.

“NAIS | The NGO and Academic ICANN Study.” Accessed March 10, 2013. http://www.naisproject.org/.

“Network Architecture and Policies: Decisions and Tradeoffs.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.bgpbook.com/arch.html.

“Network Overview /// Internet Traffic Report.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.internettrafficreport.com/.

“Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC).” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.nsrc.org/.

“New Media and Development » Ghana.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/newmediadev/Ghana.html.

“Nigeria: Internet Expansion | ICT | Africa | Oxford Business Group.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.oxfordbusinessgroup.com/economic_updates/nigeria-internet-expansion.

“NSF Future Internet Architecture Project.” Accessed December 14, 2012. http://www.nets-fia.net/.

“Nsrc.org: Networking Resources.” Accessed April 2, 2013. http://www.nsrc.org/networking/.

“Nsrc.org: Routing, BGP and IXP Resources.” Accessed April 2, 2013. http://www.nsrc.org/route-bgp-ixp.html.

“Nuevas Estrategias De Marketing 2.0.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.estrategias2.es/.

“OCLC Global Gateway [OCLC].” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.oclc.org/us/en/global/default.htm.

“Office of Educational Technology.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.ed.gov/edblogs/technology/.

“OpenNet Initiative.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://opennet.net/.

“Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.oecd.org/.

“Oxford Bibliographies,” n.d. oxfordbibliographies.com.

“Oxford Internet Institute – Home.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/.

OZCHI 2006 Proceedings. Sydney: CHISIG, 2006.

“Packet Clearing House (PCH) – Packet Clearing House.” Accessed December 13, 2012. https://www.pch.net/home/index.php.

“Pan African e-Network (PAeN) for Tele-medicine and Tele-education | African Union.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://au.int/pages/infosoc/pages/pan-african-e-network-paen-tele-medicine-and-tele-education.

“Panthers” (2004).

Pennsylvania v. Abu-Jamal, 498 U.S. 881 (1990).

“Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.pewinternet.org/.

“Political Resources on the Net.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.politicalresources.net/.

“Praxagora.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.praxagora.com/~stevet/netfuture/.

“Publications » PURSUIT.” Accessed December 14, 2012. http://www.fp7-pursuit.eu/PursuitWeb/?page_id=162.

“ReadWrite – Web Apps, Web Technology Trends, Social Networking and Social Media.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://readwrite.com/.

“Regulatory Reforms in the Telecommunications Sector in Developing Countries: The Role of Democracy and Private Interests by Lixin Xu, Wei Li, Christine Qiang :: SSRN.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=683863.

“Research ICT Africa.” Accessed December 5, 2012. http://www.researchictafrica.net/data.php.

“Resource Database — SSRC.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://mediaresearchhub.ssrc.org/resource-database.

“Rose: Powers of Freedom.” Accessed March 22, 2013. http://www.socresonline.org.uk/5/1/rose.html.

Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957).

“Saving the Internet – Harvard Business Review.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://hbr.org/product/saving-the-internet/an/R0706B-PDF-ENG.

“Science.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.sciencemag.org/.

“Shaping Policies for the Future of the Internet Economy. Report Prepared for the OECD Ministerial Meeting on the Future of the Internet Economy Taking Place in Seoul on 17-18 June..” Paris: OECD, 2008. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/1/29/40821707.pdf.

“SI-E – AfNOG 2012 Workshop.” Accessed April 2, 2013. http://www.ws.afnog.org/afnog2012/sie/index.html.

“Site Officiel Du NIC.CI .::.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.nic.ci/.

“Smash The Place: The Nation and Its Fragments (Postcolonial Asian American Studies).” Accessed March 22, 2013. http://smashtheplace.blogspot.com/2006/02/nation-and-its-fragments-postcolonial.html.

“SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: ADDITIONAL READINGS.” Accessed January 15, 2013. http://ssr1.uchicago.edu//PRELIMS/Strat/stadd.html.

“Social Studies of Science.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://sss.sagepub.com/.

“Society of Control.” Accessed March 20, 2013. http://www.nadir.org/nadir/archiv/netzkritik/societyofcontrol.html.

“SONET FAQ.” Accessed April 10, 2013. http://www.sonet.com/DOCS/faq.htm.

“State of the Internet – Official Akamai Internet Traffic Report.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.akamai.com/stateoftheinternet/.

“Steven Clift.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://stevenclift.com/.

“Structuration.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 9, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Structuration&oldid=521479228.

“Suicide Bomber Kills 33 at Army Base.” Washington Post (14). http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/suicide-bomber-kills-33-at-army-base/2011/03/14/ABL6pxU_story.html.

“Taylor & Francis Online :: Journal of Urban Technology – Volume 19, Issue 4.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cjut20/current.

“Tech Nationalism Walks a Fine Line.” oAfrica. Accessed December 5, 2012. http://www.oafrica.com/business/tech-nationalism/.

“Ten Years Ago: Ghanaian Bandwidth Nationalism.” oAfrica. Accessed December 5, 2012. http://www.oafrica.com/business/bandwidth-nationalism/.

“The Center for the Study of Technology and Society.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.tecsoc.org/.

“The Citizen Lab – University of TorontoThe Citizen Lab.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://citizenlab.org/.

“The Culture Industry, New Media, and the Shift from Creation to Curation; or, Enlightenment as a Kick in the Nuts.” Accessed January 6, 2013. http://www.academia.edu/2330406/The_Culture_Industry_New_Media_and_the_Shift_from_Creation_to_Curation_or_Enlightenment_as_a_Kick_in_the_Nuts.

“The Geography of Cyberspace Directory – Mapping The Internet.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://personalpages.manchester.ac.uk/staff/m.dodge/cybergeography//mapping.html.

“The Internet Classics Archive | Politics by Aristotle.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.html.

“The Internet Governance Forum (IGF).” Accessed March 10, 2013. http://www.wgig.org/.

“The ISC Domain Survey | Internet Systems Consortium.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.isc.org/solutions/survey.

The Nation and Its Fragments. Accessed March 22, 2013. http://www.bn.com/w/nation-and-its-fragments-partha-chatterjee/1101640347.

“The Nigeria Internet Group :: Flagship of Nigeria on the Internet :: Official Website.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.nig.org.ng/aboutus.asp.

“The Propaganda Model: An Overview, by David Cromwell.” Accessed March 21, 2013. http://www.chomsky.info/onchomsky/2002—-.htm.

“The Sacred Dilemma of Inoperosity. On Giorgio Agamben’s Opus Dei.” UniNomade. Accessed February 12, 2013. http://www.uninomade.org/negri-on-agamben-opus-dei/.

“The Specialized Technical Committees | African Union.” Accessed December 13, 2012. http://www.au.int/en/organs/stc.

The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.bn.com/w/structural-transformation-of-the-public-sphere-jurgen-habermas/1100658964.

“The Tanner Lecture on Human Values.” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, n.d.

“The Unofficial Internet Book List – Version 0.9 – 4 December 1994.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://mfx.dasburo.com/old-home/reviews/internet_book_list.html.

“The Utube Blog.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://theutubeblog.com/.

“The Yale Law Journal Online – Home.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.yalelawjournal.org/.

“The Infosphere.” Accessed December 16, 2012. http://philsteinberg.wordpress.com/research/infosphere/.

“Times Higher Education – World University Rankings, Education News and University Jobs – Most Cited Authors of Books in the Humanities, 2007.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=405956.

“Towards a Sustainable ICT Policy for Benin | eLearning Africa News Portal.” Accessed December 17, 2012. http://www.elearning-africa.com/eLA_Newsportal/towards-a-sustainable-ict-policy-for-benin/.

“Understanding the African Digital Consumer.” Accessed January 15, 2013. http://csi.mckinsey.com/Home/Knowledge_by_region/Europe_Africa_Middle_East/Understanding_the_African_digital_consumer.aspx.

“United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force.” Accessed March 10, 2013. http://www.unicttf.org/.

“University of Miami | School of Law.” Accessed December 11, 2012. http://www.law.miami.edu/errors/404.php.

“Updated List of African IXPs – 21 Countries – oAfrica.” Accessed April 2, 2013. http://www.oafrica.com/business/updated-list-of-african-ixps/.

“Walter E. Ershow Collection: Veterans History Project (American Folklife Center, Library of Congress).” Accessed January 15, 2013. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/vhp/bib/13275.

“WCIT-12: Conference Overview.” ITU. Accessed December 10, 2012. http://www.itu.int/en/wcit-12/Pages/overview.aspx.

“Welcome – Internet Studies – LibGuides at Curtin University.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://libguides.library.curtin.edu.au/internet-studies.

“Welcome — SSRC.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://mediaresearchhub.ssrc.org/.

West Africa Internet Governance Forum Annual Meeting Report. ISOC, 2012.

“What’s Newsworthy About ‘Information Seeking’? An Analysis of Google’s News Alerts.” Accessed March 19, 2013. http://informationr.net/ir/18-1/paper557.html#.UUfst3E-t38.

“Why Internet Advocates Hate Russia’s Proposal to Change the Web.” Mashable. Accessed December 10, 2012. http://mashable.com/2012/12/05/russia-internet-proposal/.

“Wiley Online Library.” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/.

“World Summit on the Information Society.” Accessed March 10, 2013. http://www.itu.int/wsis/index.html.

“World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).” Accessed December 12, 2012. http://www.w3.org/.

“XXX: Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia” (n.d.). http://wikipedia.org/XXX.

“Zero Tolerance Policy in High Schools Study.” Scribd. Accessed May 4, 2013. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45568863/Zero-Tolerance-Policy-in-High-Schools-Study.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *